Holly and Lauren spoke to Malala Yousafzai

Holly and Lauren spoke to Malala Yousafzai
Mural by Eduardo Kobra
Holly and Lauren, from Green School, Birmingham, spoke to Malala Yousafzai and wished her happy birthday after the Youth Assembly event at the United Nations. Malala was shot in the head by Taliban gunmen while returning home on a school bus in Pakistan, but recovered almost miraculously. Their day began early, and after a walk to the UN, they were able to meet Malala. Soon after they arrived, they piled into the Council Chamber with over 500 other young delegates and were immediately seated. They had a panoramic view of the room and were almost opposite the main speakers.
The UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-Moon, spoke of his education as a child himself: "I didn't learn the importance of education from a book, I lived it." His school experience was similar to that of many of the other young delegates in the room. What surprised them was the lack of resources he had had. Pupils today have access to specialist technology but Ban Ki-Moon began with very little. It shocked them how a man of such power began with so little. Then Malala spoke. They were astonished at how courageous and confident she was, and how strongly she believed in rights to education for all.
Holly and Lauren's trip to New York has been a source of inspiration and excitement. They flew for the first time, met lots of interesting people from around the world and saw some sights, but most importantly they heard how going to school is vital for so many people. The highlight of the trip for both of them was meeting Malala. She was so full of confidence. And although in some ways her life is so different to theirs, in others ways it is not - she now goes to school in Birmingham!

So, you want to plan a gap year between school and university?

So, you want to plan a gap year between school and university?
So, you want to plan a gap year between school and university? Here at Real Gap, we're bringing you a once-in-a-lifetime experience, so you can see and do whatever you want during your gap year. If you don't have a whole year off, don't worry, because our trips start from a one-week duration, so you can go on your own mini-adventure, whenever you want!
How much will it cost? Gap year adventures are as expensive as you want them to be. We also have the option to work abroad on your travels, so you can earn cash while you're exploring. For example, you could work in Australia and then move on to South East Asia afterwards, where the cost of living is considerably cheaper!
Planning your adventure is easy! There are many options available: volunteering, working, learning, travelling, and so on. If you want advice about where to go, give our travel advisors a call.
Will you be safe? If you're sensible, you almost certainly will be. Gap year adventures aren't 100 per cent safe, but neither is a trip to your local cinema. Sometimes things don't go to plan, but one of the things that gap year adventures teach people is how to deal with unfamiliar situations. If you're a first time traveller, our 'Experience' trips will probably suit you; they involve group tours around the country (with a guide), and this can definitely make people feel more comfortable.
Real Gap has programmes in over 30 countries - so there really is something for everyone! You could make a list of all the places that really interest you. Are you sporty, cultural, artistic, a party-goer? All of these elements of your personality will help us prepare the trip that will most suit you.

Michelle Obama was brought up in Chicago

Michelle Obama was brought up in Chicago
(c) Platon Antoniou
Michelle Obama was brought up in Chicago in a one-bedroom apartment. Her father worked for the city authorities and her mother, Marian, was originally a secretary who later stayed home to look after Michelle and her older brother, Craig. The family has been described as a closely united one that shared family meals, read and played games together. Craig and Michelle, 21 months apart in age, and often mistaken for twins, slept in the living room with a sheet serving as their room divider. Their parents were not well off, but both children were brought up with an emphasis on education. The brother and sister learned to read at home by the age of 4, and in primary school both were put into classes advanced for children of their age. By the beginning of secondary school, Michelle was attending special classes, where she learned French and took various accelerated courses. She then went on to attend a special high school for gifted children, where she continued to be an outstanding student. "Without being immodest, we were always smart, we were always driven and we were always encouraged to do the best you can do, not just what's necessary," her brother, Craig, has said. "And when it came to going to schools, we all wanted to go to the best schools we could." Michelle graduated from Whitney M. Young Magnet High School in 1981. After high school, she followed her brother to Princeton University, graduating in 1985 with a degree in Sociology. She went on to Harvard Law School in 1988, where she took part in demonstrations demanding more places for minority students and professors. After law school, Michelle worked for the law firm Sidley Austin in the area of marketing and intellectual property. There, in 1989, she met her future husband, Barack Obama.

What you eat and the way it affects your body

What you eat and the way it affects your body
What you eat and the way it affects your body depend very much on the kind of person you are. For one thing, the genes you inherit from your parents can determine how your metabolism deals with particular foods. The tendency to put on weight rather easily, for example, often runs in families – which means they have to take particular care. But there are certain unhealthy eating habits which you can avoid. One of these is skipping breakfast. Breakfast is the most important meal of the day, but when you have to rush to work or school in the mornings it's easy to neglect it. Doing so not only drains you of energy, but also makes it more likely that you will eat snacks during the day. Skipping breakfast also confuses your metabolism, causing you to burn fewer calories. So, if you are trying to lose weight, skipping breakfast is not a good idea. “Bingeing” or eating large amounts of food in one session is another unhealthy eating habit that you should avoid. Do you tend to skip meals, then eat a lot in the next meal to compensate? Do you fill yourself with junk food during the weekend after a week of dieting? Do you often continue eating even though you are full? These are signs that you are a habitual binger. Eating several small meals in a day helps you to avoid bingeing. If you eat while watching TV, while working, or while reading then you are also developing an unhealthy eating behavior. When you eat while doing other activities, you become unable to measure how much you eat. As a result, you tend to overeat without knowing it. You should try to have a specific time and place for eating.

Headphones are a danger to life

Headphones are a danger to life
Walking with your head in the clouds can be dangerous – but not as risky as listening to your iPod. The numbers of people suffering serious injury or death while wearing headphones for MP3 players has tripled in six years, according to a US study. An increase in the use of headphones while walking in the street has led to a dramatic rise in the number of injuries, with men and young adults the most at risk from hurting themselves.
In the study, experts looked at data from 2004 to 2011. They found that 116 people in the US wearing headphones had died or been seriously hurt during that period. The number of people who died or were injured jumped from 16 in 2004-2005 to 47 in 2010-2011. Most victims were men (68%) and under the age of 30 (67%), with about one in 10 of all cases under the age of 18.
According to the study, published in the online journal Injury Prevention, 70% of the incidents resulted in death. The study found that wearing headphones may have played a direct part in many of the accidents, because the users could not hear warnings that they were in danger. The experts concluded: “The use of headphones may result in a safety risk to pedestrians, especially in environments with moving vehicles.”
Other studies have found that people wearing headphones – or who are talking on a mobile phone – can suffer from ‘inattentional blindness’ or ‘iPod oblivion’. This is a reduction in attention to the outside world and it can lead to people paying less attention to traffic when they cross the street.
Kevin Clinton, the head of road safety at the UK Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, advised pedestrians with headphones to: “Ensure you are not dangerously distracted and that you remain aware of what is happening around you.”

The teacher who changed my life

The teacher who changed my life
A fortnight ago I heard that the English master who taught me at school, the great Frank Miles, had died, aged 92. Although he was a teaching giant and recognised as such by former pupils and colleagues, there is just a brief mention of him on the Internet. That is exactly as he would have wanted it: modern communication methods were not for him. He only just tolerated the telephone; a telephone which rang at an inopportune moment, such as when he was marking essays or exam papers, could easily be thrown out of the window.
But when he was teaching, Frank made his inflexible views extremely plain. The classroom was his theatre. In physical presence he was quite slight. But to a boy of my age his reputation made him seem several times life-size. That reputation alone was enough to cause fear into the lazy and quell the uncontrollable. He didn’t have to do anything to keep order. Lessons would begin with what a friend has described as a “ferocious, almost neurotic intensity.” They could also be very funny, as long as the class was performing to the highest level.
Frank’s critical remarks were annihilating. After the first homework our class ever did for him, Frank judged the standard so poor throughout the entire class that he tore up every incorrect composition and threw it in the bin. All except one, and I blush to write that the piece saved was mine. It would have been much better for me if someone else’s homework had been picked.
He was highly intolerant of those who disagreed with him. By today’s standards he was deeply politically incorrect and had little time for rules and regulations. In fact, in the modern bureaucratic world he would be considered a problematic teacher.
Yet he was a truly inspirational teacher who held his class in focused attention. Because, above all, he had a complete passion not only for his subject but also for education. What was most important to him was his pupils’ intellectual understanding of English, and he was not afraid to reprimand them when they were failing to reach his high standards. Frank would have taught anyone who showed a spark of aptitude for his subject as he was determined to raise standards. He was particularly pleased when a boy who had previously had a low level could achieve spectacular results.
He was quite a peculiar man. His mannerisms and language lent themselves so well to imitation that the image of boys pretending to be Frank is sometimes more vivid than the memory of Frank himself.
In the restaurant, after the funeral service, we discussed the never-ending question: who was Frank? He once told me how lucky I was to come from a loving family. He had not got on with his father. Other than that, his childhood was to us a complete blank, as was his emotional life.
He lived for his pupils; if other relationships had once existed, nobody knew about them. Although he detested snobbery and money, he could be considered an elitist—but only in the sense that he expected the best from every boy he taught, whatever their background or potential.
I was lucky to come under the eyes of a classroom colossus. Sadly, Frank did not find relationships outside the classroom easy. He became a recluse in his last decade and died in a basic flat. And the tragedy is that I never told him how much he had influenced my life—and that of many others.
Text adapted from the Daily Mail (July 16, 2013)

The right to vote

The right to vote
Votes for women? What a ridiculous idea!” Some of the arguments that male voters used in the past to prevent women the right to vote would seem unacceptable to most of us nowadays. However, many people would be surprised to read that the women of Switzerland received the right to vote in 1971, and yet canton Appenzell Innerrhoden resisted until 1991. Most male and female residents in that part of the country saw the law preventing women’s suffrage as one of their cultural traditions, along with voting by assembly in the town square. Only after two women filed suit with the Swiss Federal Court was the canton forced to extend suffrage to its female residents.
Some argued that women were less intelligent than men, that their brains were smaller than men’s. Others feared women would go out to campaign without asking their husbands’ permission. The point was also raised for equality because, they said, “women’s natural modesty would stop them going out to vote when pregnant, and since rural women have more babies than those in towns, this would give an unfair advantage to the latter.” “And if women were actually elected, that would be a source of humiliation for their husbands!”
Such were the arguments that convinced Switzerland’s male population to turn down every proposal to allow women the vote. In New Zealand women had the right to vote since 1893 and in most European countries since the end of World War I. Even though both chambers of the Swiss parliament finally gave the green light to women’s suffrage in 1958, more than 50 years after Europe’s pioneer Finland, when proposed to the people, two thirds of the male citizens turned parliament’s recommendation down.
But it wasn’t as if Swiss women had stood idly waiting for their rights to be given to them. Emilie Kempin-Spyri (1853-1901), Switzerland’s first woman lawyer, had claimed that the article of the Federal Constitution which stated “All Swiss are equal before the law” meant that men and women had equal rights. However, this assertion was rejected by the Swiss Federal Court.
The first feminist association was established in 1868, calling for civil rights, and the right to attend university. There had been proposals to include women’s suffrage in the 1874 constitution. In 1929 a petition for voting rights managed to collect a quarter of a million signatures—but it was ignored.
Switzerland’s system of direct democracy, which gave voters the final say on legislation, ironically kept women out. However, the extensive autonomy of even the smallest administrative units gave them their chance to break in to political life. It was a tiny commune in Canton Valais that, in 1957, was the first to allow its women members to vote. Several cantons gradually followed and in the 1960s women started occupying more and more important positions in local parliaments and governments. In 1968 Geneva, then the country’s third largest city, had a woman mayor—but she still couldn’t vote in federal elections.
When the human rights convention of the Council of Europe was signed, Switzerland remained out of those parts that call for sexual equality. The protest this provoked forced the government to revise its position and a new referendum was put to the country.
The result: on February 7th 1971 Swiss males finally gave their female compatriots the full federal voting rights by a two thirds majority. The official results showed 621,403 of the all-male electorate supported the vote for women and 323,596 were against.
Text adapted from Swissworld.org

Why bilinguals are smarter

Why bilinguals are smarter
Speaking two languages has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even protecting against dementia in old age.
This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the   one through much of the 20th century. Researchers and educators used to consider that a second language was an interference that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development. They were not wrong: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when only one language is being used, therefore creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as an advantage. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, making the mind strengthen its cognitive muscles.
Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be better than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle Martin-Rhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital boxes—one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle. In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by colour, placing blue circles in the box marked with the blue square and red squares in the box marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with similar easiness. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a box marked with a different colour. The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task.
The evidence from such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s executive function—a command system that directs the processes that we use for planning, solving problems and doing other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include avoiding distractions, switching attention from one thing to another and holding information in mind—like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.
The main difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: an increased ability to monitor the environment. “Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often—you may talk to your father in one language and to your mother in another,” says Albert Costa, a researcher at the Pompeu Fabra University in Spain. “This requires observing changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when driving.” In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr Costa found that the bilingual speakers did them better and needed less brain activity, indicating that they were more efficient.
The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists directed by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism were more resistant than others to the onset of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and developed them later.
Nobody ever doubted the power of language. But who could imagine that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might have such a big influence?
Text adapted from The New York Times (March 17, 2012)

Wanted: Two drinking pals for dad

Wanted: Two drinking pals for dad
When Jack Hammond, 88, moved from his flat in Hampshire, southern England, to a nursing home 20 miles away, he struggled to find someone to have a beer with. Nearly all the residents of the home are women and Hammond, a radar technician during the Second World War, felt embarrassed asking the ladies to go for a drink with him.
As a last resort, Jack’s son, Mike, put an advert in the post office asking for a man with similar interests and background to accompany his dad to the pub. He offered £7 an hour plus expenses.
Mike was so inundated with offers that he interviewed all the candidates by phone. He then asked a small group of men to join him and Jack for a trial drink in the pub. The successful pair Mike finally chose were Henry Rosenvinge, 58, a former doctor, and Trevor Pugh, 78, a retired kitchen fitter. They will now spend several nights a week with Jack chatting about military history and current affairs.
Pugh said: “I like having topical discussions and meeting new people and I’m happy to take him down the pub. We are both ex-army so we have that in common.” He will accept the hourly fee to boost his pension, but he will not take the expenses. On the other hand, Rosenvinge will do the job for free. He said: “He has a lot of stories and we are both from Lancashire so we have a lot we can talk about.”
Mike has no regrets because his father has stopped feeling miserable and lonely. Ideally, Jack wanted to be taken out for a drink seven nights a week but his son cannot go out with him that often. Jack will now be going five times a week — three with his new friends and twice with his son. 

Why do young readers prefer print to e-books?

Why do young readers prefer print to e-books?
A recent survey by Voxburner, a British marketing strategy agency, has suggested that 62% of 16- to 24-year-olds prefer reading printed books to e-books. The research is especially interesting, as it reflects the opinions of people that are as dependent on mobile phones and laptops as they are on oxygen and water.
The two main reasons for preferring print are value for money and an attachment to physical books. In fact, more than 25% of the participants in the study think that ebooks are priced too high. They explained that, if you buy a book, you can share it with as many friends as you like. On the other hand, if you get it in an electronic format, you would have to lend your e-reading device out in order for anyone else to read it.
The top-rated emotional comments for preferring physical to digital products are "I like to hold the product", "I like the smell" and "I like the packaging". However, if traditional books and e-books contain the same content, aren't they basically the same thing?
The 20th century philosopher Jacques Derrida thought so. In his book Paper Machine, he described the transition his generation had seen from the pen to the introduction of the electronic typewriter and the computer. According to him, the ebook is just a phase in the evolution of reading technologies. Following his argument, e-books are not less natural than the printed ones, but people may feel that way because paper books have always been around.
Considering that millions of people read and generate billions of words per day on computers across the world, why can't young people come to terms with e-books?
They read the news, their mail, advertisements and text messages in a digital format on a daily basis. In fact, they belong to a generation umbilically linked to their mobiles and laptops so, why are they so resistant to e-books?

The Boyhood of Pablo Picasso

The Boyhood of Pablo Picasso
Pablo Ruiz Picasso was the favourite child of his family. He was the only boy among a great many girl cousins. That was enough to make him important. Since his very early childhood it was clear he was going to be an artist. Pablo learned the word for “pencil” before he could say “mama” and “papa”. When he was small he spent hours alone making delightful drawings of animals and people. If his mother sent him out to play in the square, he went on drawing in the dust under the trees. One of his favourite models was his younger sister, Lola.
Don José Ruiz, Pablo's father, was director of the museum in Málaga. There was not much work to do there, so he was able to practise his hobby, which was painting pigeons. He painted them dead or alive, in ones and twos and in dozens.
Sometimes he painted them on paper, cut them out and stuck them on to canvas; sometimes he stuck real feathers on to his pictures. He knew a great deal about the technique of painting and he taught it all to Pablo.
Life in Málaga was very pleasant. In summer, father and son would walk down to look at the boats on the shore or wander round the open markets. They made a strange pair. Don José Ruiz was tall and thin, with red hair and beard and sad grey eyes. He was so shy and correct that he was nicknamed "the Englishman". Pablo was quite the opposite. He had his mother's small, strong build; he had straight black hair and bright eyes that noticed everything that was going on around him.

The Jack the Ripper case finally solved

The Jack the Ripper case finally solved
For just over 125 years, the mystery of the Jack the Ripper serial murders has been inspiration for books, movies and periodic re-openings of the unsolved cases. But after years of investigation, a retired detective is confident he has finally found the criminal behind some, if not all, of the killings attributed to the infamous "Jack."
Retired homicide detective Trevor Marriott says that, after 11 years of investigation, he believes German merchant sailor Carl Feigenbaum committed an unknown number of the murders. What does appear to be true is that between Aug. 31, 1888, and Nov. 9, 1888, five women were stabbed to death within one-fourth of a mile from each other in the Whitechapel neighbourhood of London. Most assume the victims were prostitutes and all killed by the same man.
Marriott had begun to think about Feigenbaum when he found out that his ships often docked near the neighbourhood where many of the unsolved murders occurred. Sailors were known to seek out prostitutes in the Whitechapel district.
Perhaps most convincing was the fact that Feigenbaum's own lawyer, William Lawton, had once told reporters he believed his client had confessed to the crimes by claiming that a disease made him kill and mutilate women. Indeed, Feigenbaum was eventually convicted and executed for an unrelated murder in New York City in 1894.
"Jack is supposed to be responsible for five murders, but there were other similar killings before and after the ones attributed to him, both in this country and abroad in America and Germany," Marriott says, adding that the widely appropriated image of Jack as a well-dressed gentleman is probably nothing but an "urban myth."

Teenager designs platform to clean seas

Teenager designs platform to clean seas- Boyan Slat
A Dutch teenager has invented a device that could clean up some 20 billion tonnes of plastic waste from the world's oceans. Boyan Slat, a nineteen year old engineering student, was worried about the amount of plastic rubbish that accumulates on the surface of some sea areas, so he came up with the idea of a series of floating barriers and processing platforms designed to collect floating plastic rubbish, while allowing fish and plankton to pass through undamaged. An additional advantage of the system is that the plastic waste collected by these barriers would be stored so that it can be later recycled.
Millions of tonnes of plastic waste are littering oceans and tend to accumulate in specific areas due to sea currents. This litter not only kills millions of aquatic animals annually but also introduces and spreads harmful algae and invasive species. Besides, plastic waste also contains pollutants that can enter the human food chain through fish. The existing methods for cleaning sea water are not very useful and they cost governments and organisations millions of dollars every year.
Boyan Slat believes that humans must drastically reduce their use of plastic items in the near future, but meanwhile his innovation could make a big difference to the cleanliness of oceans in the shorter-term. He thinks that, once operational, his device could dramatically reduce the amount of rubbish in the oceans in just about five years’ time.
Boyan Slat has offered his design to environmental companies and agencies and has already received offers to start producing experimental models of his platforms by the end of this year.

Hollywood’s Connections with Nazi Germany

Hollywood’s Connections with Nazi Germany - Ben Urwand
A controversial new book by Harvard scholar Ben Urwand claims that Hollywood movie studios agreed to the demands of the Nazis and even collaborated with them. “The studio executives wanted to preserve business in Germany all through the 1930s,” says the author. “So they invited the Nazi German consul in Los Angeles to their studios and showed him pictures that could be considered potentially offensive to Germany, and they would allow him to make cuts to their pictures.”
The Nazis, according to Urwand, could also prevent movies from being made. He claims a Hollywood film about Hitler was never produced because of Nazi pressure. The film’s original idea came from the great Hollywood screenwriter, Herman Mankiewicz, who also wrote the script for the legendary Citizen Kane – for some, the greatest movie ever made. Mankiewicz had a script about Hitler’s treatment of the Jews. According to Urwand, the Nazi German consul told studio executives that if any studio made this picture, then all of the Hollywood studios would be banned from the German market.
Steven Ross, Professor of History at USC, sees the studios’ alliance with the Nazis as understandable. He claims that studios were primarily business companies and, therefore, although they were run by Jews, they put their business interests before Judaism. “And it all has to be understood in the context of the times,” says historian Thomas Doherty. He observes that in the 1930’s, the Nazis had not become the universal symbol for absolute evil they are today, “so, to condemn producers for negotiating with the Nazis, to my mind, lacks historical perspective.”

Rome bans lovers' locks to protect bridge

Rome bans lovers' locks to protect bridge
Thousands of ‘love locks’ fixed to an ancient bridge in Rome, the Italian capital, have been cut off to save the structure from damage. For years teenage lovers have written their initials on the love locks and attach them to the bridge. They have then sworn eternal love for each other and thrown the key into the Tiber river below. The habit has also become popular at other bridges around the world, particularly in Paris.
The love lock idea was first inspired by characters in the 2006 Italian teenage novel I want you, written by Federico Moccia. In the book, a young couple places a bicycle lock around a lamp post on the Milvian bridge and throws the key into the Tiber. The famous bridge was first built in 206 BC and is one of the oldest in Rome. It was the scene of an important Roman battle in AD 312.
In 2007 a lamp post on the ancient bridge almost collapsed under the weight of the love locks and special posts were put up for them. But last month officials said that enough was enough. “We decided to remove the love locks to restore the decorum of the bridge,” said the local area president, Gianni Giacomini. Since the habit started, the residential neighbourhood has become a busy centre for late-night bars and city officials said that 86% of local people wanted the locks to go. They promised to give the love locks a place in a Rome museum and said they would create a spot near the bridge where locks could be left in the future.
“The bridge will be guarded day and night to stop more locks being attached,” said local public official Stefano Erbaggi. However, Federico Moccia is unhappy about the move. “The removal of the locks is inconsiderate,” he told the newspaper La Repubblica. “Rome is giving Paris the ‘bridge of love’ tradition which was born here and should stay here.”

Dis-moi comment tu t'habilles, je te dirai qui tu es

Dis-moi comment tu t'habilles, je te dirai qui tu es
De nos jours, beaucoup de jeunes s'habillent non pas pour eux, mais surtout pour les autres. L'apparence physique est un élément très important dans la vie des jeunes. Il faut faire bonne impression pour arriver à se faire accepter par des groupes d'amis modernes. Ce désir constant de vouloir s'intégrer, et de vouloir se faire remarquer par tous présente aussi des dangers. Alors, le style vestimentaire est-il une traduction ou une trahison de soi ?
Les jeunes sont constamment jugés sur leur apparence physique. Pour éviter l'exclusion, il faut se fondre dans le groupe, appartenir à une tribu. Dans les collèges, un élève peut être rejeté par ses camarades parce qu'il n'est manifestement pas dans le coup. Ne voulant pas faire l'objet des critiques de leur entourage, les jeunes préfèrent porter des vêtements comme les autres, qui finalement ne leur correspondent pas toujours.
Certes dans la société d'aujourd'hui il n'est pas toujours évident, quand on est jeune, d'assumer sa propre vision des choses ou d'assumer un style vestimentaire différent de celui des autres, et de chercher son propre style par peur de se faire rejeter par les autres. Bien souvent, les parents n'approuvent pas le style vestimentaire de leurs ados. Être sexy ou être dans le coup ne veut pas dire être extravagant. Si vous voulez qu'on vous respecte, apprenez à vous respecter vous-même. Évitez les tenues extravagantes qui pourraient vous porter préjudice. Surtout, rappelez-vous qu'il est possible de vous valoriser autrement que par votre apparence et votre style vestimentaire. Car, il ne faut pas l'oublier, l'attachement à la mode est intimement lié à l'estime de soi.
lemauricien.com 14/10/2013 (Texte adapté)

Inde: la chasse à la vache sacrée

gao mata: Inde: la chasse à la vache sacrée
Une fois la nuit tombée, des bandits d'un nouveau genre agissent dans les rues de New Delhi. Armés de couteaux, ils errent à la recherche de leurs futures victimes. Quelles sont-elles ? Des vaches. Animal sacré pour la religion hindouiste, la gao mata (vache mère) a pour habitude de se promener en toute tranquillité sur l'asphalte brûlant de New Delhi. Protégées pour leur lait, nourriture de toutes les créatures de la Terre, les gao mata sont aujourd'hui plus de 40 000 rien que dans la capitale indienne.
Mais depuis quelque temps, la sécurité de la gao mata n'est plus assurée dans la ville. Chaque nuit, plusieurs dizaines de ruminants sont kidnappés sans que personne ne puisse les protéger. La viande est revendue immédiatement pour satisfaire l'appétit d'Indiens bien peu respectueux des règles établies... L'information pourrait faire sourire. Elle est pourtant révélatrice d'un changement radical dans la société indienne : la consommation de viande n'est plus un tabou. Dans un article du New York Times, relayé par Courrier International, Anuj Agrawal, un hindou élevé dans un foyer strictement végétarien, témoigne de sa nouvelle passion pour la viande. Adolescent, il mange pour la première fois du poulet avec ses amis. Aujourd'hui, plus aucun interdit, Anuj Agrawal se régale aussi de viande de boeuf. Oui, mais pas avec ses grands-parents. « En leur compagnie, je reste totalement végétarien, je ne souhaite pas être déshérité », déclare-t-il. Pas fou le végétarien...
Point.fr 11/06/2013 (Texte adapté)

Madrid veut remettre ses pendules à l'heure

Madrid veut remettre ses pendules à l'heure
Les Espagnols vont-ils rentrer dans le rang ? Prendre leurs repas à des heures « décentes » ? Se coucher tôt ? Vivre, en somme, comme des Européens ? Une commission parlementaire s’est sérieusement posé la question. Après neuf mois de réflexion et la contribution de près de 60 experts, le verdict est tombé : le rapport recommande de reculer les pendules d’une heure afin de revenir à l’heure du méridien de Greenwich (et donc d’adopter celle du Royaume-Uni, qui est sur la même longitude que la péninsule ibérique). La commission enjoint aussi à l’ensemble de la société espagnole d’impulser un changement de ses horaires dans la vie quotidienne, notamment en respectant une pause d’une heure au maximum pour déjeuner, ce qui permettra de quitter son travail plus tôt. En effet, les Espagnols ne quittent leur travail que bien plus tard que les Allemands ou les Français. Comme conséquence, les Espagnols qui commencent, comme la plupart des Européens, à travailler vers 9 heures voient leur temps de sommeil significativement diminué. Fatigués, ils sont moins productifs, doivent rester plus longtemps au bureau et passent finalement peu de temps avec leur famille. «Aucun pays n’a d’horaires aussi bizarres et néfastes», affirme Nuria Chinchilla, membre du comité d’experts consultés. Et pour Ignacio Buqueros, président de l’Association pour la rationalisation des horaires espagnols «notre rythme de vie exerce une incidence directe sur la productivité, le stress et l’échec scolaire et complique nos relations avec nos voisins européens».
Le magazine du Monde. 12 octobre 2013 (Texte adapté)

Malala pour l'éducation

Malala pour l'éducation
Victime d’une agression parce qu’elle militait pour le droit des filles à l’éducation, Malala Yousafzai est devenue, à 15 ans, une icône. À l’occasion de son 16e anniversaire, elle livre aujourd’hui un discours devant les diplomates de l’ONU, pour défendre les droits de l’enfant à l’éducation. Le 9 octobre 2012, la jeune Pakistanaise, militant pour le droit des filles à l’éducation, est agressée par des combattants du Mouvement des talibans du Pakistan (TTP) alors qu’elle circulait à bord d’un bus scolaire. Une balle se loge dans son épaule, tandis qu’une autre perce son crâne.
Pendant une dizaine de jours, Malala, 15 ans, reste entre la vie et la mort. Et en dix jours, la jeune étudiante, déjà célèbre pour ses positions sur l'Éducation, en devient le symbole. Son engagement militant s’est d’abord matérialisé sur un blog – hébergé par le site de la BBC – quand, en 2008, les talibans ont incendié plus de 150 écoles dans sa région, et interdit, par décret religieux, aux jeunes filles d’aller à l’école, en janvier 2009. Sous le pseudonyme Guy Makai, Malala dénonce alors les violences commises contre les écoles et la population. Un courage loué par son propre gouvernement, qui lui décerne, en 2011, le Prix national pour la paix. Quelques mois après son rétablissement, après le décès de quatorze étudiantes pakistanaises victimes d’un attentat suicide, le 15 juin, dans le bus qui les conduisait à leur université, le combat de Malala pour l’éducation est plus que jamais d’actualité. Inscrite
au collège à Birmingham, au Royaume-Uni depuis sa guérison, elle présente aujourd’hui à l’ONU des recommandations en matière d’éducation.
lefigaro.fr (11 juillet 2013) (texte adapté)

C'est quoi l'affaire Leonarda?

C'est quoi l'affaire Leonarda?
Quand un étranger veut venir vivre en France, il doit demander des papiers l'autorisant à y rester. Beaucoup de personnes le font chaque année et toutes ne remplissent pas les critères pour avoir le droit de rester. C'est le cas de la famille de Leonarda. Quand ils sont arrivés en France, le papa de Leonarda a déclaré qu'ils étaient menacés et qu'ils avaient dû fuir le Kosovo. Il a demandé le droit d'asile que l'on accorde aux personnes qui courent un réel danger chez elles. C'était un mensonge, car la famille vient en réalité d'Italie. Mais les juges qui ne le savaient pas ont tout de même estimé que le Kosovo n’est pas un pays en guerre et qu'on ne pouvait pas accorder le droit d'asile à Leonarda et sa famille. Ils n'avaient plus le droit d'être en France. Un arrêté d'expulsion a été pris. C'est à ce moment-là que l'histoire de Leonarda est devenue publique. Les policiers sont venus la chercher dans le bus qui devait l'emmener, avec sa classe, en sortie scolaire. C'est ce qui a fait scandale. Quand ils sont à l'école, les enfants doivent être protégés. La police ne doit pas venir les chercher devant tous leurs camarades. Plusieurs personnalités politiques se sont déclarées choquées par ce qu'avait subi Leonarda. Des lycéens ont organisé des manifestations pour la soutenir, ainsi qu'un autre lycéen expulsé de France. Pour calmer les choses, le président de la République François Hollande a proposé que Leonarda revienne seule en France, car c'est envers elle seule que la France avait un geste à faire. Mais Leonarda a refusé. Elle ne veut pas quitter sa famille.
JDE (Texte adapté)

Tatouages de couleur: quels sont les dangers?

Tatouages de couleur: quels sont les dangers?
L'agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM) veut interdire 59 colorants sur 153 produits utilisés par les tatoueurs. Neuf encres sur dix seraient concernées. Finalement, il ne restera que 27 colorants rouges, 13 blancs, 13 orange, 12 jaunes, 6 noirs, 3 violet et 3 bruns. On pourra donc continuer à se faire tatouer en noir, blanc, gris, vert et bleu. Mais là encore, seulement dans certaines teintes limitées. Ces colorants sont soupçonnés d'être nocifs. Dans un communiqué publié en janvier 2013, le Syndicat national des dermatologues (Sndv) avait, lui, estimé que les encres contiennent « des métaux toxiques » ainsi que des types d'hydrocarbures, dont la plupart sont cancérigènes. Certaines couleurs seraient plus dangereuses que d'autres, selon le Sndv.
« Injectés sous l'épiderme, certains composants sont mal tolérés par l'organisme. Le rouge, par exemple, qui serait le plus allergène. Mais toutes les couleurs le sont plus qu'un noir pur. Les encres rouges contiennent du fer, du cadmium, du mercure (il ne serait plus utilisé, mais on en trouve encore) et des encres blanches mélangées avec le rouge (le titane, l'aluminium, le calcium...). Le problème de ces encres blanches est qu'elles sont présentes sous forme de nanoparticules qui, du fait de leur taille, peuvent avoir une action neurotoxique ». Les allergies seraient les complications les plus fréquentes : démangeaisons, gonflements, lésions. Dans le rapport de l'Académie de médecine intitulé « Piercings et tatouages, la fréquence des complications justifie une réglementation », on indique que ces allergies sont dues aux pigments métalliques tels que le chrome et le cobalt.
Huffpost, le 30 novembre 2013 (Texte adapté)

Courses online

Courses online
For those students who struggle to leave their beds for a 9 a.m. lecture, the idea of studying online wherever and whenever you want – including under the duvet with a laptop – may seem like a dream come true. Soon some students will be able to do just that, as will anybody with a computer and internet connection, because a number of universities are planning to offer some of their courses online. Not only will these offer greater flexibility to online learners around the world, they will also be free.
EdX, an online platform founded by Harvard, Berkeley and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has already attracted 800,000 students from 192 countries since it started in autumn 2012. Significantly, the platform has developed an examination process, which means that online learners can graduate from an EdX course with a certificate and a grade.
However, it seems unlikely, for the time being, that online higher education will supersede traditional on-campus university degrees. It is well-known that many leading institutions, including Oxford and Cambridge, are absent from a list of 17 universities that have signed up to give away their course content online.
An obstacle preventing online courses from being taken seriously is the fact that many have a high drop-out rate. For instance, although 155,000 students registered online to take MIT’s courses on electronics on EdX, only 7,200 students completed them. With no tutors or lecturers to help you in person, self-motivation and discipline are required in abundance to see a course through to the end.

The decline of “Once upon a time…”

Bedtime stories: The decline of “Once upon a time….”
Once upon a time, parents read bedtime stories to their children... But now it seems that the fairy tale is over. According to a poll of mums and dads with under-sevens, 36 per cent of parents never pick up a book with their little ones. Of those who do read with their kids, just 21 per cent make time for a story before bed every night. The study also showed that nearly half of the kids would rather watch TV or play with toys or computer games.
In light of the findings, Littlewoods.com, a British online retailer behind the study, has teamed up with 31-year-old British pop star Natasha Hamilton to get youngsters back into reading. Littlewoods and Natasha have just launched a bedtime story competition for children under seven to draw pictures and create their own tale. The winning entry will be turned into an audio book, narrated by Natasha. The pop star said: “As a mum of three, I know how enjoyable bedtime stories are for my kids. I’m really excited about seeing all the different story ideas. I can’t wait to see what the kids come up with. Choosing a winner will not be easy”.
Experts say that one of the key ways of helping children to learn to read and write well is to give them a love of books. However, some parents blame a lack of time for not reading with their children, while others say they are just too stressed, or that their kids are simply not interested. Surprisingly enough, the vast majority of parents were told bedtime stories regularly when they were little.

What’s in a Name?

Gandalf - magician - The lord of the ringRecently, a couple in New Zealand was not allowed to name their baby son 4Real. Even though New Zealand has quite liberal rules about naming children, names beginning with a number are not allowed. They decided to call him Superman instead.
In many countries around the world, unusual names for children are becoming more popular, especially since the increasing fashion for celebrities to give their children silly names. In Britain, you can call a child almost anything you like - the only restrictions on parents relate to offensive words. Some parents choose names which come from popular culture. For example, there have been six boys named Gandalf after the character in the Lord of the Rings novels and films. Equally, names relating to sport are fairly common - since 1984, 36 children have been called Arsenal after the football team.
Other countries have much stricter rules about how parents should name their children. Countries including Japan, Denmark, Germany and Argentina have an approved list of names from which parents must choose. In China, there are some rules about what you may call a child - no foreign letters or symbols are allowed. As a result, just a year ago, a couple could not name their baby son @.
In Britain, some names which were previously considered old-fashioned have become more popular again, such as Maisie or Ella for a girl, or Alfie or Noah for a boy. But the most popular names are not the silly ones. The top names are fairly traditional - Jack, Charlie and Thomas for boys and Grace, Ruby and Jessica for girls.

Examenes Comunidad Valenciana inglés resueltos

Examenes Comunidad Valenciana inglés resueltos




Exámenes Valencia Inglés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos


Examenes Galicia PAU resueltos

Examenes Galicia Ingles PAU resueltos



Exámenes Galicia Inglés PAU resueltos

 

Exámenes Galicia Francés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos

Examenes Galicia Inglés resueltos

Examenes Galicia Ingles PAU resueltos



Exámenes Galicia Inglés PAU resueltos

 

Exámenes Galicia Francés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos

St Valentine’s Day - Andalucía

Lupercalia - St Valentine’s Day
Valentine’s Day originates from the ancient Roman fertility festival of Lupercalia. During the festival, young men would draw the names of women from a box, and each couple would be paired until the following year’s celebration. Often they would fall in love and marry.
At around 270 AD Rome was facing battles and civil uprising. The men were not keen to join the army. Emperor Claudius II believed that the men did not want to leave their loved ones and summarily canceled all marriages and engagements. Two priests, Valentine and Marius, disobeyed the decree and secretly performed marriage ceremonies. Valentine was caught on February 14th and dragged to jail. Later in the day he was clubbed to death and beheaded. It is said that, before his execution, Valentine himself had fallen in love with the jailer’s daughter. He signed his final note to her, “From your Valentine.”
The fertility festival was celebrated until 496 AD when Pope Gelasius replaced it with a similar celebration. For patron saint of the celebration he chose the lovers’ saint, St Valentine. He also moved the date of the celebration from the 15th of February to the date of St Valentine’s death, February 14th. Through the centuries, Valentine’s Day came to be remembered more as the festival of love than as a religious day.
In 1969 it was dropped from the Roman Catholic calendar as a designated feast day. Esther Howland, the woman who produced the first commercial American Valentine’s Day cards in the 1840s, sold $5,000 in cards her first year of business. Today, over 1 billion Valentine’s cards are sent in the US – second in number only to Christmas cards.

January sales

January sales
People who are addicted to shopping are nowadays called shopaholics. For these shopaholics, the post-Christmas period means only one thing - sales!
Across the country, prices are reduced on clothing, electronics, home furnishings and more, but London is the place for serious shopping, and you can certainly pick up some amazing bargains.
The sales start on Boxing Day, 26th December, and continue for the month of January, but the keenest bargain hunters get there early to be first through the doors. In Oxford Street queues form outside shops before pre-dawn openings for the start of their sales. At Brent Cross, in north London, hundreds of people queue at 3:30 am for the “Next” clothing store’s sale which begins at 4 am. Some hardy individuals even camp outside the shops to be first in the line.
Consumers who go to the shops are rewarded with discounts of up to 80%, as department stores join the sales frenzy. The shops are packed with people moving around as the sales get into full swing, with more than half a million people converging on London’s West End.
Some people are taking their partners shopping with them and buying their Christmas presents in the sale - a practical but unromantic way of making sure you get the gift you really want. For a less exciting but less stressful shopping experience, online retailers also participate in the January sales of
their own. The most organised of all are those who are already doing their present shopping for next Christmas, in the January sales!

Ce n’est pas un secret

Ce n’est pas un secret, les Français ne sont pas des champions en matière de langues étrangères
Ce n’est pas un secret, les Français ne sont pas des champions en matière de langues étrangères. Pour pallier ces lacunes, une nouvelle méthode d’apprentissage pourrait nous faciliter la tâche : le chant. Une étude britannique […] révèle qu’apprendre des mots étrangers en les chantant, permet de mieux les retenir. […] Les chercheurs ont testé des adultes sur la langue hongroise, à priori peu familière des Britanniques. Particulièrement difficile à maîtriser, la langue possède une structure très différente des langues anglo-saxonnes ou latines. Le hongrois est une langue dite « agglutinante ». La majorité des mots sont formés en ajoutant un ou plusieurs suffixes à une racine, ce qui permet à un seul mot d’en remplacer plusieurs en français (exemple : kézem, ma main, kézemben, dans ma main).
[…] Les participants ont écouté une série de mots, pour ensuite les répéter pendant 15 minutes. Certains, en les récitant de manière traditionnelle, d’autres en chantant. Ils ont alors été soumis à un test pour noter les mots qui ont été retenus. Les adultes qui ont choisi de chanter ont retenu deux fois plus de mots que leurs camarades. […] Lorsqu’ils ont été soumis à ces mêmes tests des heures plus tard, ils les avaient encore en mémoire.
[…] La plupart des gens se souviennent régulièrement des mots qu’ils ont entendus dans des chansons. Toute la question est de savoir si la mélodie fournit un repère supplémentaire dans la mémoire des gens. L’utilisation du chant est déjà une évidence à l’école primaire. Pour l’enfant, les mélodies sont un facilitateur de parole. La pratique de la chanson favorise l’acquisition de la musicalité de la langue.
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