Tattoos - PAU 2015 Andalucía resuelto

Tattoos: prehistoric mumies
The discovery of mummies with very simple decorative tattoos has proved the existence of tattooing since prehistoric times. Scientists have not been able to explain the symbolism of these designs made up of lines and dots, but it is thought they were part of a medical healing process.
However, for nearly as long as there has been tattooing, there has been condemnation. The Romans used tattoos to mark slaves and criminals and the Japanese also considered them punishment. If you were a convicted criminal, you would get a mark on your forehead, convicted twice get another, and if you were convicted a third time, you would receive a third and final mark making the Japanese symbol for “dog”.
In some other societies, tattoos gained respect and assured the owners status for life. The Polynesians developed them to mark rank, and there is evidence that the Incas tattooed their warriors to remind them and others of their success and bravery in battle.
In the late 1700s Captain Cook and his men reintroduced tattooing in Europe. Returning from one of his trips, he brought a heavily tattooed Polynesian man who was a sensation among London upper-class. They were so fascinated that they began adorning themselves with body marks in discreet places and, for a short time, tattooing became a trend.
After World War II, tattoos had a terrible reputation because newspapers reported stories of blood poisoning and other diseases and the people who wore them were associated with delinquents. Today they are becoming so popular that it is getting harder and harder to find individuals without a tattoo. This rise in popularity has placed tattooists in the category of “fine artists”.

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Exámenes Comunidad de Madrid inglés resueltos



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Ebola: Le virus passe les frontières - PAU francés 2015

Ebola: Le virus passe les frontières
Le virus Ebola touche à nouveau l'Afrique de l'Ouest depuis plusieurs mois. Cette épidémie est la plus grave depuis sa découverte il y a 38 ans. Le virus se propage par les fluides (sang, salive). Les signes de la maladie sont : fièvre, fatigue, courbatures et saignements importants. Le virus voyage. Aujourd'hui, avec les mouvements de population, le virus Ebola n'est plus cantonné à l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Ce sont les personnes malades elles-mêmes qui font voyager le virus. Les premiers cas ont passé les frontières. En Espagne, une aide-soignante qui s'était occupée de deux malades - aujourd'hui décédés - est contaminée à son tour. Cinq autres personnes, proches de l'aide-soignante, ont été placées en quarantaine: cela veut dire qu'elles sont isolées chez elles et n'ont plus le droit d'entrer en contact avec des gens de l'extérieur. Le monde entier craint une propagation du virus Ebola dans la plupart des pays.
Quelles mesures sont prises pour éviter que le virus ne se propage? Des contrôles renforcés dans les aéroports et les ports. Les passagers qui embarquent depuis les pays d'Afrique touchés sont contrôlés: leur température est relevée avant qu'ils ne montent dans l'avion ou le bateau. Les Aéroports de Paris ont réservé un espace pour isoler les passagers présentant les signes d'Ebola à leur arrivée. Les contrôles des passagers en provenance des pays à risque sont renforcés. On a prévu aussi d’envoyer des aides supplémentaires en Afrique de l'Ouest. Les États-Unis ont prévu d'envoyer 3000 militaires sur place pour construire des centres de soins et former le personnel.
JDE 09.10.2014 (texte adapté)

Screen dinosaurs - PAU Andalucía 2015 resuelto

Screen dinosaurs - PAU Andalucía 2015
In 1922 a short film confused its audience by showing dinosaurs that were taken for real, living dinosaurs that had somehow escaped extinction. The next day newspapers revealed the truth: they were just special effects. Well, today we think we know what dinosaurs looked like because we’ve watched hours of films and documentaries – from the black-and-white, robotic figures of old movies to today’s computer-generated dinosaurs. But although animatronics have become extremely sophisticated and realistic, what we see on screen today is a combination of fact and fantasy, just as it was 100 years ago.
Much of what movies have taught us is wrong. For instance, the latest paleontological research says now that velociraptors (which were also much smaller than in Jurassic Park, about the size of a large chicken), and quite possibly T-rex itself, could have had their bodies covered in feathers rather than skin – although they lacked the ability to fly.
In the end, fiction is fiction, so perhaps it doesn’t matter very much if Jurassic Park and other movies change some facts to add excitement. However, mixing truth and conjecture is more significant in programmes that could be mistaken for reality, like Walking with Dinosaurs, often cited as the most successful television documentary series of all time. But can it truly be classified as a documentary? Its format is familiar to viewers as it resembles real-life wildlife programmes. So it feels like everything you are shown and told in those so-called documentaries is established beyond doubt. But people should be aware that many of today’s dinosaur programmes represent just the way things might possibly have been, and so they should be enjoyed as a hybrid of fact and fiction.

Esperanto and universal communication - PAU 2015 Cataluña

Esperanto and universal communication
Today, English has no rival as an international lingua franca. However, things could have been different if Esperanto, an artificial language invented in 1887 by Ludwig Lazarus Zamenhof, a Jewish doctor from Bialystok (modern-day Poland but then part of the Russian Empire), had become a common language. Esperanto is made up of key structures from different linguistic families (Latinate, Germanic, Slavic and Semitic). The word Esperanto derives from Doktoro Esperanto (“Esperanto” translates as “one who hopes”), the pseudonym under which Zamenhof published the first grammar of Esperanto. Zamenhof’s goal was to create an easy-to-learn, politically neutral language that would transcend nationality and encourage peace and international understanding between people with different languages.
In a letter to a friend, Zamenhof explained why he was worried about human communication: “The place where I was born and spent my childhood gave direction to all my future struggles. In Bialystok the inhabitants were divided into four distinct elements: Russians, Poles, Germans and Jews; each of these spoke their own language and looked on all the others as enemies. Living in such a town made me feel the misery caused by language division. The diversity of languages is the first, or at least the most influential, basis for the separation of the human family into groups of enemies. I was brought up as an idealist. I was taught that all people were brothers, while outside in the street at every step I felt that there were no people, only Russians, Poles, Germans and Jews.”
In 1905, Esperanto’s first international congress took place in Boulogne-sur-Mer, in France. Then, in 1920, the League of Nations (the precursor of the United Nations) recommended that its member states incorporate the language, despite misgivings in France, as at that time French was the dominant international tongue. However, the advent of the Second World War and Nazi expansion put an end to the possibility of the language, which was invented by a Jew, from becoming the new international lingua franca. Nevertheless, more than a century since Zamenhof published his first grammar enthusiasts of Esperanto continue to promote the usefulness of the tongue. “Esperanto is much easier to learn than English,” says Ramon Perera, a member of the Associació Catalana d’Esperanto and a teacher of the language for the past 20 years. “Esperanto,” he says, “is a fairer language because none of its speakers have an advantage over the others.” Perera says that up to two years are needed to learn the language, “depending on the capabilities of each person, the hours dedicated to it and the level they want to reach.”
Perera began learning the language some 38 years ago when a friend lent him a book written in Esperanto. He took a four-week intensive course, which left him captivated by the language’s “simple and logical” grammar. From that moment on, he became a dedicated “Esperantist” and has since met speakers from all over Europe, something that has been aided by the advent of the Internet. “It is a language that works and that could solve the world’s communication problems,” he says. In fact, the French economist François Grin, in 2005, presented a report to the European Parliament that proposed adopting Esperanto as a common language in the European Union, which would save the Union 25 million euros every year. For the moment, that report has been filed away somewhere, but according to estimates by the World Esperanto Association, there are as many as two million Esperanto speakers who hope that one day their adopted language will take root and a new era of universal communication will begin.
Text adapted from Catalonia Today (October 31, 2013)

Are love-locks on bridges romantic or a menace? PAU 2015

Are love-locks on bridges romantic or a menace? - Give Paris Love not Locks
Beautiful bridges in Paris are being ruined by an epidemic of padlocks. But is the growing trend for love-locks a thoughtless act of vandalism, or just a harmless expression of love?
It seemed romantic when Carolyn Barnabo and Clive Roberts attached a padlock to the Pont des Arts and symbolically threw the key into the Seine. Five years later they are married and their love is still strong, but Carolyn’s fondness for love-locks certainly isn’t. “It’s just out of control and I feel so bad that we contributed to it,” says Carolyn. “This beautiful bridge is ruined.” There were just a few love-locks on the bridge when she attached hers and posted photos on her blog. Now there are thousands on bridges all over Paris.
The locks first started appearing on bridges in Paris around 2006, shortly after young couples in Italy had begun attaching padlocks to the Ponte Milvio over Rome’s river Tiber, mimicking the protagonists of a popular Italian novel. In 2007 the mayor of Rome introduced fines for anyone leaving a padlock on this bridge. “After Rome started forbidding the locks, couples from all over Europe came to Paris,” Lorna Taylor explains. She and friend Lisa Anselmo started the No Love-Locks campaign in January 2014. “The delicate Pont des Arts, which has become a freakish mass of indistinguishable metal pieces, is now in mortal danger,” Lisa Anselmo adds. They say the City of Love has now become the City of Locks, and they have counted at least eight bridges over the Seine and three over the Canal Saint Martin where padlocks have spread “like fungus.” Anselmo thinks that this trend “defaces and damages historic structures, and it is already imposing itself on other cities around Europe, where some of the bridges involved are hundreds of years old.”
The padlock supposedly symbolises a bond between two people in love—but local authorities are now removing some padlocks from time to time. It was only after a wall on the Pont des Arts collapsed under the weight of the locks that the Paris authorities got serious about putting an end to the practice. “Some of the railings have 500 kilograms of locks by the time they are removed. The one that collapsed weighed 700 kilograms. They’re a costly problem for the city and also a safety one,” Lorna Taylor says. Now, city officials in Paris are experimenting with panels of thick glass to protect the bridges from the damage caused by padlocks.
Described as an “epidemic” by the No Love-Locks campaign, padlocks are spreading around the world, and they are no longer restricted to bridges. Love-locks have appeared on the top of the Eiffel Tower and others can be found on fences in London. And they are not restricted to tourist destinations either—four have already appeared on St Botolph’s Bridge in Boston, Lincolnshire, which only opened in February 2014. Many businesses have benefitted from this trend: some offer engraved padlocks in heart shapes and even one website suggests locations to attach them in Amsterdam, Chicago, Prague, Rome or Sydney. Lisa Anselmo says: “If a city wants to designate a space uniquely for love-locks, and restrict the practice on non-designated areas, that’s not a bad idea. The question is how to find a way for love-locks and heritage to co-exist.”
Despite attaching her own love lock in Paris five years ago, Carolyn now regrets that she contributed to this horrendous sight. “I would hate to see any beautiful bridges in England get like that. It was a nice idea, but I hope it dies out soon.”
Text adapted from BBC News (May 5, 2014)

Imaginary friends – Why more children have one now - PAU 2015

Imaginary friends – Why more children have one now
When journalist Eleanor Tucker was at primary school in the 1970s, she had a friend. He wasn't a child and he wasn't a girl. He was in his 30s, he had a beard and his name was Klas.
She explains: “Klas was my imaginary friend. He wasn't about all the time, because he lived near my grandmother in a white house by the station, about half an hour's drive from ours. But as I grew up, he was often mentioned and even blamed for some mistakes I made. If I talked when nobody was around, it was to Klas. If I sometimes played without my sister, I was playing with Klas. It seemed quite normal at the time to have an imaginary friend but lots of things pass for normal when you're a kid. By the time I went to secondary school, Klas had stopped visiting. I filed him away under “the past” and forgot about him, until a book I read recently made me think of him again.”
The author of the book is Nikki Sheehan, and as part of her research, she discovered that rather than being an outdated phenomenon, imaginary friends might actually be more common nowadays. But why? First, it's probably just a more accurate representation of the way that children play. “For most of the 20th century the general idea was that imaginary playmates were a sign of insecurity, so people may have been less inclined to admit to having an imaginary friend.” Sheehan also suggests that within smaller family units, children these days are more likely to play in a certain solitary way, which creates an environment that is welcoming to imaginary friends.
Imaginary friends come in a huge range of guises, as educational psychologist Karen Majors discovered.
They might be smaller versions of the children themselves; humans or sometimes animals; based on real people or TV characters; single or multiple; and varied in terms of gender, age and temperament. In general, girls often create imaginary friends who need taking care of, but the characters impersonated by boys are often “super competent” and might be a representation of the child's own aspirations.
(28.02.2014 The Guardian, Adapted).

Cats recognise their owners' voices but never evolved to care

Cats recognise their owners' voices but never evolved to care
Any cat owner will tell you that although they are sometimes kept as pets, felines are friends to no one. A new study from the University of Tokyo has confirmed this, showing that although pet cats are more than capable of recognising their owner’s voice they choose to ignore them - for reasons that are perhaps rooted in the evolutionary history of the animal.
The study tested twenty housecats in their own homes, waiting until the owner was out of sight and then playing them recordings of three strangers calling their names, followed by their owner, followed by another stranger. The researchers then analysed the cats’ responses to each call by measuring a number of factors including ear, tail and head movement, vocalization, eye dilation and finally whether or not the cats moved towards the voice. When hearing their names being called the cats generally moved their heads and ears about to locate where the sound was coming from. Although they showed a greater response to their owner’s voice than to strangers’, they declined to move when called by any of the people.
“These results indicate that cats do not actively respond with communicative behaviour to owners who are calling them from out of sight, even though they can distinguish their owners’ voices,” wrote the researcher. “This cat–owner relationship is in contrast to that with dogs. Historically speaking, cats, unlike dogs, have not been domesticated to obey humans’ orders. Rather, they seem to take the initiative in human–cat interaction.” This is in contrast to the history of dogs and humans, where the former has been bred over thousands of years to respond to commands. Cats, it seems, never needed to learn.
However, it's unlikely that this will dismay cat owners (or indeed, be of any surprise) and the paper notes that although “dogs are perceived by their owners as being more affectionate than cats, dog owners and cat owners do not differ significantly in their reported attachment level to their pets”.
(27.11.2013 The Independent)

Ma vie de prof en ZEP - PAU 2015

Cela fait dix-huit ans qu’Agnès Dibot, 45 ans, enseigne au collège George-Sand, un établissement de très mauvaise réputation qui compte 460 élèves, situé dans une ZEP* à Châtellerault, où, malgré les opérations de rénovation, la pauvreté persiste. 83 % de sa population est classée « défavorisée ». Ici, quelques pères Courage partent encore travailler la semaine, à Paris, à 300 km. Mais la plupart de ses habitants subsistent avec de petits boulots* ou des aides sociales. Et leurs adolescents sont scolarisés au collège George-Sand, dont les pourcentages de réussite sont parmi les plus faibles de la zone de Poitiers.
Benoît Bassereau enseigne à George-Sand depuis dix ans : « C’était une volonté de ma part ». D’où un engagement à plein temps : en plus d’être professeur principal des élèves de la section sport-études, il organise le cross annuel et le tournoi de foot. « Je donne beaucoup, parce que ce sont eux qui en ont le plus besoin », dit-il brièvement, avec un mélange de bienveillance et d’autorité.
« Est-ce qu’on a été efficace ? » La demande angoisse Benoît Santa-Cruz depuis quelque temps. « Quand le boulanger goûte son pain, il sait s’il est bon. Nous, on ne sait pas », précise ce professeur de français, 29 ans, à George-Sand depuis 2011. Il comptait y rester un an. Il est encore là. « Il y a un côté sacerdoce. On est en mission, ici », assure-t-il. « En ZEP,* c’est là qu’on apprend tout. » Benoît Santa-Cruz est présent dès 7 h 45. Il prépare sa salle, dépose les documents sur les tables pour « éviter les temps morts » : « Mon métier est un sport qui nécessite un entraînement. Pour que le savoir passe, il faut une autorité ferme sur le groupe. Si je ne prends pas l’ascendant sur eux, je n’arrive pas à faire mon cours. Mais ils demandent aussi beaucoup d’affects et de contact ». Face aux adolescents, Benoît Santa-Cruz joue un personnage, qui séduit. Il fait un show. Il parcourt à grands pas la salle, lance des « OK, c’est parti ! », claque des doigts. « On a des élèves qui ne s’intéressent pas au savoir qu’on leur propose », précise-t-il. « Le claquement des doigts, c’est pour instaurer un rituel, leur signifier qu’il faut travailler. »
« C’est un sport de combat », précise Jules Aimé, 29 ans, qui enseigne l’histoire et la géographie dans la salle d’à côté depuis 2012. Comme pour illustrer sa difficulté à transmettre son savoir, il dit : « On est face à des élèves qui sont dans un monde qu’ils ne comprennent pas ou qu’ils ne veulent pas comprendre. Ils n’ont aucun contrôle sur eux-mêmes ». En début d’année, Jules Aimé ne leur demande pas le métier de leurs parents, ce qui est inutile et stigmatisant. Certains ne le savent pas, les autres sont au chômage. « Ce qui est dur », ajoute-t-il, « c’est le désert culturel de nos gamins.* Ils ne lisent pas. Chez certains, il n’y a que la télé. Pas de livre ». Pendant le cours, lui n’utilise que l’ordinateur qui projette la leçon sur le mur : « Écrire au tableau et leur tourner le dos, en ZEP,* ce n’est pas possible », justifie-t-il. « Leur attention se relâche immédiatement. Avec le numérique, ils sont plus réactifs. » Le prof déambule dans la classe avec son clavier, le tend à l’un ou l’autre, pour qu’ils s’en servent eux-mêmes : « Ils n’ont pas forcément accès à ces outils chez eux. Ça les valorise. Ma vie de prof en ZEP,* c’est une vocation et beaucoup d’implication ».
D’après Marianne (12-18 décembre 2014)

Alerte aux « big mothers » - PAU 2015

Alerte aux « big mothers » GPS pour enfants
De leurs ordinateurs, de leurs tablettes ou de leurs portables, les parents 2.0 peuvent surveiller les moindres déplacements de leurs enfants. Et ils sont de plus en plus nombreux à le faire. Il leur suffit d’avoir doté leur précieuse progéniture de GPS portatifs. Ces dispositifs géolocalisent l’enfant et envoient, par exemple, une alerte lorsque l’écolier pénètre dans l’établissement scolaire. « Au travail, j’ai l’emploi du temps de ma fille aînée », raconte Laëtitia, 33 ans. « Quand elle doit être à la maison, je regarde vite fait si elle y est. Si elle doit rentrer à 18 heures et qu’elle est en retard, je consulte mon portable et, si elle est juste au coin de la rue, je ne panique pas. » C’est ainsi qu’Allison, 12 ans, ne parcourt jamais sans son GPS les 300 mètres qui séparent sa classe de La Poste, où son papa lui donne rendez-vous après l’école.
Aline, 30 ans, a opté pour une caméra infrarouge afin de superviser le sommeil de Céleste, 3 ans. « Quand je travaille, parfois j’ouvre une fenêtre avec l’image transmise par la caméra sur mon fond d’écran », explique la jeune maman. « Je l’utiliserai jusqu’à ses 6-7 ans, après je lui laisserai son intimité. » Ces cordons ombilicaux high-tech laissent pourtant les pédopsychiatres* stupéfaits. « Cette hyperattention empêche l’enfant de grandir », estime le psychanalyste Michael Stora. « Les périodes d’absence du parent permettent au bébé de s’autonomiser en développant sa pensée. Si, à cause de ces objets, sa maman vient trop vite quand il pleure, elle ne lui laisse pas le temps de vivre l’expérience du manque et, ainsi, de s’individualiser. »
Pour les parents inquiets, ces appareils les inciteraient au contraire à donner plus de liberté à leur enfant. « S’ils n’avaient pas le GPS, je ne les laisserais pas rentrer à la maison à pied à midi, ils iraient à la cantine », explique Grégory, papa de Jules et Rose, 9 et 8 ans. Les géniteurs n’ont qu’une peur : la mauvaise rencontre. Pour la psychanalyste Claudia Fliess, « il faut que l’enfant apprenne qu’il est capable de se défendre par lui-même ». De son côté, Michael Stora précise : « Ces objets provoquent un paradoxe. Les parents disent à leur enfant : “ Je te fais confiance, mais parce que je te surveille ” ». Et ils créent de nouvelles angoisses. « Une fois j’ai appelé ma femme car mon fils de 5 ans n’était pas à l’école », reconnaît Max. « En fait, il était au sport. »
Le risque est grand de se perdre dans cette dynamique. Agnès, malgré les meilleures intentions du monde, l’a expérimenté. Déconcertée par la soudaine hostilité de son adolescente de 17 ans, elle a cédé à la tentation il y a quelques mois. « Elle était devenue insupportable. Un jour, je lui ai pris son téléphone. J’ai tout lu et je suis tombée des nues.* » Marie prend des drogues. Cette nuit-là, avec son mari, Agnès décide d’installer une application espionne sur le portable de Marie, qu’elle emmène par ailleurs chez un psychiatre. Dès le réveil, à la moindre minute libre, la maman inquiète se connecte pour voir si la demoiselle reste clean.* Des heures à dévorer des SMS. « Partout, j’allumais mon portable pour ne pas perdre le fil. Je lisais, je pleurais. Je suis rentrée dans sa tête. J’étais presque devenue elle. » C’est sa soeur qui va lui imposer d’arrêter. Agnès a fini par supprimer l’application. En deux secondes, elle était libérée. Et le cordon ombilical, enfin coupé. « Jamais, même sur mon lit de mort, je ne lui dirai que je l’ai espionnée. »
D’après Le Nouvel Observateur (9 octobre 2014)

Stage de survie dans les beaux quartiers - PAU 2015 Cataluña

Stage de survie dans les beaux quartiers
À quelques stations de métro, un autre monde. En s’aventurant un peu plus loin qu’à l’habitude sur leur ligne de métro, la 13, qui part de Saint-Denis, au nord de Paris, jusque dans le fameux triangle d’or parisien, ou bien aux alentours du parc Monceau ou de la Madeleine, Loubna, Hicham, Myriam, Nora ont éprouvé le dépaysement* du navigateur débarquant en terre inconnue. « J’étais complètement stupéfaite. C’était la première fois que j’allais dans un quartier aussi riche de la capitale. Les couleurs ne sont pas du tout les mêmes que chez nous », raconte Loubna. Ainsi, tout étonne Hicham, même les oiseaux : « Les pigeons étaient vraiment différents de ceux que j’avais vus auparavant. Ils paraissaient propres, et j’avais l’impression qu’ils vivaient sans peur dans ce milieu parisien ». Même impression pour Myriam : « Tout paraît différent, l’architecture, les rues, les commerces, les bâtiments. Les lieux sont beaux ».
« La distance sociale se mesure difficilement, mais elle s’éprouve…* », résume Nicolas Jounin, professeur à l’Université de Paris-VIII, qui raconte cette expérience dans son livre Voyage de classes : entraîner ses étudiants — en grande majorité des jeunes filles de la banlieue, de familles immigrées, ouvrières, « rarement blanches » — à s’initier à l’observation sociologique des quartiers les plus riches de la capitale.
« En sociologie, ce sont des jeunes de la bourgeoisie qui étudient les milieux défavorisés, j’ai voulu renverser les rôles… » Nicolas Jounin a donc emmené ses étudiants en exploration dans ces zones du 8e arrondissement de Paris peu fréquentées. « J’ai voulu créer un dépaysement* pour mes étudiants, mais surtout leur apprendre à mener leur propre enquête. »
Avant chaque déplacement hebdomadaire sur le terrain, Nicolas Jounin leur a donné à lire des livres et des fiches. Après, les étudiants ont dû construire une méthodologie pour décrire de façon précise ce milieu qui leur était étranger. Ils ont choisi des enquêtes par questionnaires, des entretiens avec des habitants, avec des commerçants du quartier, ou même auprès des passants.
Ainsi, Laetitia a conduit un entretien avec un ancien responsable d’un grand groupe industriel dans son imposant hôtel particulier, près du parc Monceau. Parfois aimable et éloquent, parfois offensé, celui-ci, oubliant qu’il a accepté de se soumettre à une enquête universitaire, lui a reproché la « sottise » de ses questions, son ignorance du monde des affaires, sa façon de s’asseoir, etc. « J’ai tenu bon* parce que je voulais produire un travail intéressant, mais il n’a pas cessé de nous humilier. » Mais, pour Laetitia comme pour bien d’autres participants à ce cours, le plus frappant a surtout été l’ignorance des conditions de vie des autres manifestée par les habitants du 8e. « Au fond, le plus incroyable pour nous, c’était de voir que, pour lui, tout ça, cette vie de château, c’était juste banal. » Décidément, un autre monde.
D’après Le Nouvel Observateur (9 octobre 2014)

The last of the noblest generation

The last of the noblest generation : War is organised murder, nothing else
Harry Patch, the last survivor of the First World War, and the man who reminded the modern world of its obscene massacre, died at the age of 111. His life ended on a fine summer morning in his native Somerset, many miles from the Belgian land of Ypres where so many of his comrades fell, and where he so nearly joined them. For decades he kept the sights and sounds of that terrible experience to himself. But then, at the age of 100, he began to talk…
Born in the village of Coombe Down, Harry left school at 14 for an apprenticeship with a plumber, and would, no doubt, have lived a life of peaceful anonymity if the war hadn’t been declared. Being too young at first, at the age of 17 Harry was conscripted. “I didn’t want to go and fight anyone, but it was a case of having to,” he said. He was in charge of a machine gun, and, by his 19th birthday, was in a trench in the middle of one of the most famous and bloodiest battles of the First World War: the Battle of Ypres. “Anyone who tells you he wasn’t scared is a damned liar,” Harry would later say. “We lived by the hour… You saw the sun rise; hopefully, you’d see it set. If you saw it set, you hoped you’d see it rise.”
Many didn’t. One of them was a young soldier whom Patch and his comrades found in the battlefield, badly wounded by shrapnel. “Shoot me,” he said, and then, before Harry could react, he died with the words “Mother!” on his lips. It was but one of the phantoms from the trenches that Harry carried with him until his death. Later on, in September 1917, came the German projectile which would hit Harry. It burst among his mates with such force that three of them were never found again. Harry, some metres away, was seriously wounded, his stomach pierced by shrapnel. He was taken to a CCS (casualty clearing station), where he lay, untreated in maddening pain, for one day and a half. Finally, a doctor came, and, with no anaesthetic, took out the metal while four men held him down. Although he would not be demobbed for another year, that was the end of Harry’s war. He returned home, to plumbing, marriage, two sons, and an old age that saw him survive both sons and his wife.
All this time, he had kept those memories of war to himself, telling no one. But then, as he passed his 100th birthday, a journalist called Richard Emden asked Harry if he would talk of war. He agreed and he wrote, with Richard’s help, his life story, and became a witness for those comrades who had been killed so many years before. When Richard Emden went to see him, Harry sat at a table in the morning room of his house. The conversation went mainly one-way. Harry’s mind was sharp, and his sight good, but his voice was soft and delicate, and he was practically speechless. The journalist ended the interview before he had intended, afraid to be more of an inconvenience than he had already been.
His voice and body may have died, but his words on war should live on, resonating strongly. Harry Patch had words for all his experiences. They were spoken with an anger that lasted all his adult life. “War,” he said, “is organised murder, and nothing else.”
Text adapted from The Independent (July 26, 2009)

Use or abuse of technology - PAU 2015 Madrid

People in Britain now spend more time watching TV, gaming, and using their mobile phones and computers than they do sleeping. Research by a British communications agency found that the average UK adult uses technology for eight hours and 41 minutes a day, 20 minutes longer than they spend sleeping. One of the biggest reasons for this is Wi-Fi. People can get online almost anywhere, so they spend more time online. Nowadays, it is very common that people make telephone calls or surf the web while watching television.
The study, which examined the use of technology by different age groups, also found that six-year-olds understand how to use gadgets such as tablets and mobile phones at the same level as 45-year-olds. Another finding was that people understand digital technology better when they are 14 or 15.
According to Dr. Arthur Cassidy, a social media psychologist, technology is changing the way people communicate with each other. He warned that we are becoming more and more anti-social and we are moving away from face-toface conversations because of technology. He added that people are now saturated with digital technology and are becoming psychologically dependent on their smart phones.
Dr. Cassidy linked the increasing cases of Internet and social media addiction among youngsters with problems in mental and physical development. Perhaps we should think of recreational screen time as a form of consumption in the same way that we think of sugar, hours of sun, ... – measured in units of hours per day.

Go on two wheels - PAU 2015 Madrid

Go on two wheels
“Beat the Tube strike, get a bike!” During the 48-hour shutdown of London Underground in February 2014, thousands did just that and took to two wheels. During the General Strike of 1926, the middle-class volunteers who drove trains were strike breakers. Similarly, these two-wheeled commuters were trying to beat the Tube strike.
With every turn of a bicycle wheel, human freedom is advanced. Cyclists do not have to face timetables; through their own sweat, they make their way in the world, free from following rigid lines of steel and electricity. The bike is individualism in action.
The bicycle is a reminder of the freedoms people enjoyed in the lost Victorian days. You pay no taxes or duties; you need no licence, permit or certificate of proficiency - you just get on your bike. And any cyclist with road sense will have a relaxed attitude towards highways regulations. It is absurd to give dog-like obedience to a red light when your eyes and ears tell you it is safe to go.
The bike has always pedalled individual freedom forward. The Lady Cyclists’ Association, founded in 1892, knew that it not only gave women an escape from home and husband, but also a reason to throw off constricting dresses. Many lady cyclists, for practical reasons, made cause with the Rational Dress Society who opposed “the introduction of any fashion in dress that either deforms the figure or impedes the movement of the body”.
The car is no longer a symbol of freedom, so if you want to feel free, go on two wheels.

Password pressure - PAU 2015 País Vasco

Password pressure
Nothing is more annoying than sitting at a computer screen, looking at a message saying “Password incorrect”. Modern technology is a wonderful thing, but when it crosses the line that divides helpful from annoying it can become a problem. Whether we like it or not, much of our daily life is now conducted online. As a result, we have many internet accounts and we need to remember a large number of passwords and usernames to gain access to them.
The password pressure of modern life means that 61% of us use the same password wherever we can. In fact, one in 10 people have 50 or more online accounts and many are not only using the same password for everything, but also writing down all their passwords in one place, such as a Post-it note stuck to their computer.
Some personal data, such as your mother’s name, might seem hard to decipher but if someone has any information about you, it may be easy to guess. However, this doesn’t mean you have to remember 50 completely nonsensical things.
The same password can be used for low-security accounts, such as discussion groups, but if the account is more important your password should be more complex.Never use standard dictionary words. Criminals use software that can go through every word in the dictionary and try them out as passwords in seconds. For more security, try mixing letters with numbers and punctuation. And the longer the password, the better it is in terms of security. Many sites ask for a “minimum six characters”, but you don’t need to stop there. Think of a memorable phrase, take the spaces out, or use the first letter of each word.
According to the Microsoft website, it’s not necessarily bad to write your password down —a piece of paper is harder for a criminal to hack than something on your computer, as long as it is carefully protected. So hide your password or disguise it. And never write "My internet password" at the top of the page.

New clothes which make people invisible to cameras - PAU 2015

New clothes which make people invisible to cameras
Celebrities may finally have a way to defend themselves against unwanted street photographers' cameras thanks to a clever new clothes collection which is designed to ruin any images taken using flash photography.
DJ Chris Holmes has invented the Flashback Collection, an anti-paparazzi type of clothing that reflects the light from a camera's flash, creating a hopefully useless image which completely hides the wearer's face.
The collection includes a hooded jacket, a scarf, and a coat that look like everyday pieces, but essentially act as a mirror when hit with bright light, making the wearer practically invisible in flash photography. Holmes has asked for suggestions for additions to the line in the comments section of the product’s web-page.
Mr. Holmes, who works with Paul McCartney, said that he was inspired to create the collection after he realised the reflective clothes he wears when he is on stage were spoiling the pictures. "While I wasn't happy that many of my photos were ruined, it gave me the idea that, perhaps, I could use this technology to design clothes which could make photos worthless-perfect for those who don't want their picture taken." he wrote.
He developed his product for a competition on new ideas called "Think Tank", which allows people to decide which items deserve to be funded and produced. These clothes are currently unavailable for buying, but fans have 20 more days to vote for them on the Think Tank website in the hope that they will eventually be sold in shops.
One person who will no doubt be delighted to see the concept turned into a reality is model Cara Delevingne, who is well-known for being one of the most photographed women in the world. In November, the model was actually seen wearing a reflective silver jacket made especially for her. The jacket was given to the star in order to test whether it actually worked when facing some of the world's most persistent celebrity photographers.

Words on trial - PAU Murcia 2015

Words on trial - Chris Coleman
January 2009. Chris Coleman began telling friends and associates that he was worried about the safety (1) of his family. He had been receiving death threats (2) by email, which also mentioned his wife and his sons. Coleman asked his neighbor across the street, a police officer, to set a security camera on the front of his house.
May 2009. Coleman left his home early to work out (3) at the gym. Later on, when he called his wife and got no answer, he asked his neighbor the policeman to check on her. The officer found a horrifying scene. Red graffiti —“Fuck you” and “U have paid!”— was scrawled1 on the walls and on the sheets of the beds in which Coleman’s wife and kids lay strangled to death. Although a back window was open —suggesting that someone had entered the house out of view of the camera—, the police quickly came to suspect Coleman himself, as they found out that he was having an affair (4) with a cocktail waitress.
However, his DNA2 was not found anywhere that would connect him directly to the crime. At the trial, experts showed that some of the threatening e-mails had been sent from Coleman’s computer, but they couldn’t prove it hadn’t been hacked. They could demonstrate Coleman had bought a can of red spray paint months before, but they couldn’t link him to the can used in the crime. Toward the end of the trial, prosecutors3 asked for the testimony of Dr. Robert Leonard, a forensic linguist who, relying on (5) word choice and spelling largely, suggested that the same person had written the threatening e-mails and sprayed the graffiti, and that those specimens4 were similar to Coleman’s prose style.
  • 1 Scrawl: Garabatear 
  • 2 DNA: ADN 
  • 3 Prosecutor: Fiscal 
  • 4 Specimens: Muestras

Your mom’s wrong! - PAU Murcia 2015 resuelto

Your mom’s wrong! - video gamer's brain
To better understand how video games affect the brain, German researchers conducted a study in which they asked 23 adults in their mid-twenties to play “Super Mario 64” for 30 minutes a day over a period of two months. A separate control group did not play video games at all.
Examining the brains of the two groups using an MRI machine they found that the gaming group had a rise (1) in grey matter in the areas of the brain responsible for spatial navigation, memory formation, strategic planning and fine (2) motor skills in the hands. “While previous studies have shown differences in brain structure of video gamers, the present study can demonstrate the direct causal link (3) between video gaming and volumetric brain increase and that specific brain regions can be trained by means of video games,” study leader Simone Kühn said.
Another study, carried out at the University of Padua, throws cold water on the idea that video games are bad for the brains of young children. In February, the Italian researchers presented evidence (4) that playing fast-paced video games can improve the reading skills of children with dyslexia.
The team separated children age 7 to 13 into two groups, one of which played an action game called “Rayman Raving Rabbids” while the other played a lower tempo game. When the reading skills of the children were tested afterwards, those who played the action game were capable of reading faster and more accurately (5). The authors of the study hypothesized that the action games help kids increase their attention spans, a skill considered crucial to reading.
  • 1MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, a system for producing electronic pictures of the organs inside a person’s body, using radio waves and a strong magnetic field. (Important note: You can perfectly do this exam without knowing the meaning of “MRI machine”).

Book review - PAU 2015 Murcia

The time in between - book review
I am going to be honest. I said I would read this book because I think I need to read more women authors and more foreign writers, just to get out of my comfort zone. But when I finally got it in my hands and read the synopsis, I was scared because it dealt with a lot of things I tend to avoid (1). What will I have in common with a pre-World War II seamstress1 as she deals with love and intrigue in southern Europe? But being the dutiful guy I am, I took it to work to read during my time off —to, at least, make a start. That was a mistake, a big mistake, because… Bloody hell, this book rocked (2)!!!
I was distracted at work for the rest of the day and immediately devoured (3) this book as soon as I got home —all 600 pages of it. People like to talk about the skill of the writing as if that is what made a good book, but in reality it is voice and story, and the author has this in spades2.
The story is very exciting and slowly grabs (4) you, so much that you do not notice how tightly it has trapped you. The Time In Between just flows beautifully as the pages go by.
The most vivid aspect for me was the society that the heroine had to operate in, pre-WWII Spain and Morocco. It was dedicated to seeing who was loyal to the cause, forcing people to choose sides in a “nobody wins” situation. But as in all unfair dominion situations, you begin to lose all trust in those around you, even those that are closest. When you can’t trust (5) anyone, you have no family, and that is the beginning of death for any society. Our heroine survived because in even the worst of situations she was always able to find someone to trust.
  • 1 Seamstress: costurera
  • 2 In spades: muchísimo, de sobra

Your computer knows you better than your friends do - PAU 2015

Your computer knows you better than your friends do
A computer can get to know somebody's character better than a person’s parents or close friends, research has shown. All it needs is the right input data – specifically someone’s Facebook "likes". By analysing "likes", the software is able to predict personality better than friends and family. Only husbands and wives matched the computer’s ability to estimate psychological characteristics. This finding is an important step towards emotionally-intelligent machines. In the future, computers may be able to understand our personalities and react appropriately, leading to more natural interactions between humans and computers or robots.
Scientists at the University of Cambridge showed that their software was able to predict somebody’s personality more accurately than a work colleague by analysing just 10 Facebook "likes". Inputting 70 "likes" allowed it to give a truer picture of someone’s character than a friend or flatmate could offer, while 150 "likes" out-performed a parent, brother or sister. It took 300 "likes" before the programme was able to judge character better than a husband or wife. Given that an average Facebook user has about 227 "likes", the researchers say this kind of artificial intelligence has the potential to know us better than our closest companions.
According to one of the scientists involved, Dr. Youyou, "Employers could match candidates with jobs better based on their personality. People may decide to improve their own intuitions with this kind of data analysis when making life decisions such as choosing their studies, jobs, hobbies or even romantic partners. Such computer-aided decisions may well improve people’s lives."
But the researchers share the concerns of those who fear a future in which our characteristics and habits become an "open book" for computers to read. However, they hope that governments and technology developers will confront those problems by supporting privacy-protecting laws and technologies, and giving the users full control over their digital footprints.

Student raises over £21,000 for homeless man who offered her money - PAU inglés 2015

Student raises over £21,000 for homeless man who offered her money- Dominique Harrison-Bentzen
Dominique Harrison-Bentzen, a 22-year-old student of art at the University of Central Lancashire in Preston, had lost her purse and needed to get home after a night out when a homeless man known only as Robbie approached her. He insisted that she should take his last £3 so that she could get a taxi home safely. She declined the offer, but was so grateful for his gesture that she started a campaign to raise enough money to help him get a flat. She set up a donation page and asked people to donate £3 each for her fundraiser.
“I was touched by such a kind gesture from a man who faces prejudice every day. He has been homeless for 7 months through no fault of his own and needs to get back on his feet but cannot get work due to having no permanent place to live. So that’s when I decided to change Robbie’s life and help him,” Dominique explains on her donation page.
The campaign has received global attention and has become very popular by spreading rapidly on social media. Since the fundraising page was set up, it has frequently reported technical difficulties due to an unusually high number of visitors. Many have tweeted their support, including Ian Brown of the Stone Roses.
Dominique says the money will be used to find a home for Robbie and help other homeless people in the city. In fact, with Robbie’s agreement, she wants to help as many people without shelter as she can. Robbie has already suggested some local charities within Preston who have helped not only him but others throughout their adversity.
“The next few days will be spent carefully deciding where to donate the money and how it can be used in the most efficient way to benefit the homeless community within Preston,” she says on her Facebook page.

English idioms and their origins - PAU Murcia 2015

English idioms and their origins - Don't turn a blind eye
The phrase “turn a blind eye”, which is often used to refer to a stubborn rejection to acknowledge (1) a particular reality, dates back to a legendary chapter in the career of the British naval hero Horatio Nelson. During 1801’s Battle of Copenhagen, Nelson’s ships had to fight against a large Danish-Norwegian fleet1. When his more cautious superior officer flagged for him to withdraw (2), the one-eyed Nelson supposedly brought his telescope to his bad eye and cheerfully proclaimed, “I really do not see the signal.” He went on to score (3) a decisive victory. Some historians have since dismissed Nelson’s famous joke as merely a battlefield myth, but the phrase “turn a blind eye” persists to this day.
The phrase “paint the town red” most likely owes its origin to one legendary night of drunkenness. In 1837, the Marquis of Waterford, a known heavy drinker and troublemaker, led a group of friends on a night of drinking through the English town of Melton Mowbray. The party culminated in vandalism after Waterford and his friends knocked flowerpots over, pulled off doorknockers and broke the windows of some of the town’s buildings. To top it all off (4), the group literally painted the doors of several homes and a swan statue with red paint. The marquis and his companions later compensated Melton for the damages, but their drunken escapade is likely the reason that “paint the town red” became synonymous for a wild night out. Still yet another theory suggests the phrase was actually born (5) out of the brothels2 of the American West, and referred to men behaving as though their whole town were a red-light district3.
  • 1 Fleet: A large group of ships 
  • 2 Brothel: a place where prostitutes work
  • 3 Redlight district: an area with a concentration of sex-related businesses

Do the Instagram stars show we're now all living in a false reality?

Do the Instagram stars show we're now all living in a false reality?
Celebrities  have  always  been  paid  to  promote  products  through  social  media.  But  increasingly, Instagram  users  without  real-world  fame  are  cashing  in  too.  While  you’ve  been  putting  up  photos of your dog, others have been busy building up their own brand identity. Companies have sprung up that encourage  followers  to  buy  the  clothes  on  your  back,  the  pillows  on your bed, the bowl your cat eats from... You can now assemble your identity through photos that shape your style and your home.
One of the first Instagram stars was a woman called Jen Selter, who got noticed after posting multiple shots of  the  results  of  her  fitness  regime.  Looking  through  her  photos  you  can  see  why  people  feel compelled to follow her: an ordinary girl who encourages you to work out for similar results.
Much  has  been  written  about  celebrity  culture  –the dangers  of  attempting  to  emulate  our  favourite Hollywood  heroes.  Why  are  these  new  insta-celebs  any  different?  They’re  not  sharing  spontaneous moments  or  candid  pictures  that  give you a realistic look at their lives, they’re presenting a stage set. The idea behind it is to make you believe that if you spend enough, work out enough, you can be like them.  And  it  works,  because  they’re  not  megastars  but  people  like  you.  This  is  why  you  think  their status is achievable.
When your own life becomes your job, though, you’re bound to present it dishonestly. Let’s demand a bit more  reality,  and  present  a  more  honest  version  of  our  own  lives  in  response.  We  might  find  that there is no need to emulate a life that reaches us only through a heavily filtered lens.
Adapted from an article by Bella Mackie, The Guardian, 27th November, 2014 

Child poverty in Spain seen through the eyes of Encarni - 2015

Child poverty in Spain seen through the eyes of Encarni
“I  would  like  to  have  a  big  house,  and  I  wish  my  family  didn’t  have  to  go  out  and  ask  for  food  or clothes,” Encarni, who just turned 12, is one of the faces of child poverty in Spain. Almost every day, she goes with her mother and her aunt to get food at the Er Banco Güeno, a soup kitchen which has been operating for the last two years. “I worked in construction until the start of the 2008 crisis, when I was laid off,” Encarni’s stepfather says. Since then he has not found work, and has done a little of everything, from picking up junk to selling things in street markets. Encarni explains that her mother found work for a couple of months taking care of an elderly person, but was fired.
“I really like to go to school. I especially love gymnastics,” Encarni says, although she adds that she gets sad when she feels they leave her out sometimes, “because they saw me go into the soup kitchen for food. But I just ignore them,” she adds.
A few days ago her aunt and three cousins moved to another house nearby. But until then there were 11 people  living  in  Encarni’s  house.  She  slept  in  the  top  bunk  with  her  cousin  while  the  other members of her family slept in the rest of the rooms of the house, which only has one small bathroom near the kitchen.
Encarni wants to be a judge when she grows up. But she says that for now she would be happy just to be able to “dress well” and be able to buy more things in the supermarket.

Inter Press Service News Agency, 1st November, 2014

Food for thought - PAU Canarias 2015 resuelto

Food for thought - PAU Canarias 2015 resuelto
We eat food to stay alive. However, today we worry about many things, if the animal was happy or sad, and if the apple is local or imported from the other side of the planet.
I’ve been a vegetarian. After reading Jonathan Safran Foer’s Eating animals, I couldn’t touch meat for six months. His description of how meat is produced in industrial farming completely put me off steaks and sausages. I constantly told friends and family about how their meat was produced, or how environmentally damaging meat farming is.
Of course my love for meat returned. When I started to forget what was on the pages of the book, I started to remember how much I appreciate a juicy burger or crispy bacon on a Sunday morning. Now I try to convince myself that I’ll quit meat one day.
I believe that there are two motivations behind dietary decisions. One is based on a desire to respect nature. The other is based on a desire to obtain a certain body shape or be healthy. Most of all, I think we diet to feel good about ourselves. I’ve heard that if you want to look like Beyonce (and who wouldn’t?) you should try “The Def Jam Diet”. For a couple of weeks your diet consists of a drink of honey and lemon, spiced with cayenne pepper or ginger.
Reflecting on food trends has made me realize that almost all my women friends have struggled with some kind of eating disorder at some point in their life. For example, my sister has been anorexic, my friend from high school is bulimic, and a couple of months ago I interviewed an 18-year-old man who almost died from not eating. The best idea is probably to eat a healthy and balanced diet and try not to worry about the fact that you will never have Beyonce’s body. (314 words)

FEMEN protest - PAU Canarias 2015

FEMEN protest
FEMEN is a radical feminist protest group founded in Ukraine in 2008. The group is now based in Paris. The organization has become internationally known for its topless protests against religious institutions, sexism, homophobia, and other social, national, and international issues. This is the justification behind FEMEN’s actions: if the female body is so well-suited to marketing purposes, why not use it to benefit women? “Why is it that a woman who comes out and uncovers her chest is called a prostitute? Why?” declares Anna Dieda, a FEMEN activist. “My attitude is that I protest against something and I show my breasts to attract attention”. What makes FEMEN different from commercial projects is the fact that every action promotes a social or political issue. FEMEN’s provocative behavior distinguishes the movement from typical political or ideological manifestations. Another difference of FEMEN’s radicalism is the young women’s use of street space. According to experts from the Center of Social Research, who have analyzed the status of the struggle for women's rights in Ukraine, it is precisely street protest activities that attract attention. Their latest action happened last Christmas. A topless FEMEN protester (with the words “God is woman” painted across her naked chest) kidnapped Baby Jesus from the manger at St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. The woman ran to the manger in the center of the square, took the Jesus figurine, and raised it above her head while shouting slogans against the Catholic Church. The action was in protest against “the centuries-old Vatican view of women's rights for their own bodies and the reproductive function”. To what extent are we ready to take seriously a protest expressed through the sexualized female body? Is the group just changing the focus from the level of protest to that of a sexual performance, a peepshow, striptease, or promiscuity? How effective is such a protest?
(312 words)
from different texts

The rise of wearable technology - PAU Comunidad Valenciana 2015

The rise of wearable technology - Google's glasses
Wearable  technology  (the  one you wear on  your  body) is  hardly  a new phenomenon. But thanks to the internet and computing  speed,  a whole  new world of possibilities  is opening  up, and  with  it comes a lot of questions that may eclipse all previous debate over online privacy.
Governments around the world are pouring money into wearable tech. US soldiers have been testing a device that can locate the exact place of gunfire and display it on a small screen attached  to  a soldier’s  body armour.  Devices  are  also  being  used to monitor  soldiers’  health.  Many  of these technologies are likely to filter down to civilian life. Indeed, wearable technology makes you look at technology in a different way. We are moving to a world where technology interacts with us –you are not just staring at a screen. It is suggesting things to you. Maybe go for a walk, or reminding you that you need to shop for food.
But supporters of privacy are increasingly concerned. People need to be very careful about the ways in which they adopt technology. There is always an issue with who uses your data. Who else is seeing this? Employers?  Insurance  companies?  Much  of  these data  will  be  stored  in  the  “cloud”,  which  is not secure. And this is just the start. Google’s glasses will potentially be watching your every move.
Do  you  really  need  another  device?  There’s  a  lot  of money  betting  that  you  soon  will  and  this  new device will look a lot like something you own already (a belt, a watch, glasses). The body is the new tech battleground,  and  wearable  tech  may  be  about  to  become  the  21st-century  version  of  body armour.
Adapted from an article by Dominic Rushe, The Observer

Bilingual brains: variety makes you mentally fit - PAU inglés 2015

Bilingual brains: variety makes you mentally fit
For years, researchers in bilingualism have reported findings about how bilingualism affects the brain. Two of the most memorable involve “executive control” and delayed dementia. With the first, bilinguals have shown that  they are better able to focus on demanding mental tasks despite distractions. In other studies, it has been estimated that bilinguals see the initial stages of dementia, on average, about five years later than monolinguals do.
This  week  comes  new  evidence.  Researchers  led  by  Roberto  Filippi  of  Anglia  Ruskin University  have  found  that  young  bilingual  pupils  did  a  better  job  answering  tricky  questions with a noisy voice in the background than a monolingual group. The researchers in this line of inquiry  tend  to  share a  common  hypothesis:  that  being  bilingual  is  a  kind  of  constant mental exercise. With two languages in the mind, every time a thing is named, an alternative must be suppressed.  Every  time  a  sentence  is  constructed,  the  other  way  of  constructing  it  must  be suppressed.
Blocking  out  distracting  information  is  exactly  what  researchers  find  that  bilinguals  do  well. And as  for  dementia,  the  effect  seems  to  be  a  kind of  analogue  to  physical  activity  over  the course of a lifetime keeping a body fit. Mental exercise keeps the brain fit, and bilingualism is just that kind of exercise.
Why  bilinguals  seem  to  do  better  in  quite  a  few  differently  designed  studies  does,  however, need  more  research.  Besides,  some  parents  still  think  that  bilingualism  might  harm  a  child’s development.
Adapted from The Economist, 17th October, 2014

Exámenes inglés resueltos

Exámenes inglés resueltos

Exámenes Selectividad  Inglés   Resueltos: PAU - PAEG + de 25

Exámenes EOI  Inglés  Resueltos:  A2 - B1 - B2 - C1 - C2

Pruebas de Acceso Grado Superior Resueltos: FP Inglés  

Exámenes Título de Bachiller Resueltos:  Bachiller Inglés  

Exámenes Graduado ESO Resueltos:  ESO Inglés  

Otros Exámenes Resueltos

Exámenes francés resueltos

Exámenes francés resueltos 

Exámenes Selectividad  Francés Resueltos: PAU  + de 25

Exámenes EOI  Francés Resueltos:  A2 - B1 - B2 

Pruebas de Acceso Grado Superior Resueltos: FP Francés  

Exámenes Graduado ESO Resueltos:  ESO Francés  

Otros Exámenes Resueltos

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