C'est quoi l'affaire Leonarda?

C'est quoi l'affaire Leonarda?
Quand un étranger veut venir vivre en France, il doit demander des papiers l'autorisant à y rester. Beaucoup de personnes le font chaque année et toutes ne remplissent pas les critères pour avoir le droit de rester. C'est le cas de la famille de Leonarda. Quand ils sont arrivés en France, le papa de Leonarda a déclaré qu'ils étaient menacés et qu'ils avaient dû fuir le Kosovo. Il a demandé le droit d'asile que l'on accorde aux personnes qui courent un réel danger chez elles. C'était un mensonge, car la famille vient en réalité d'Italie. Mais les juges qui ne le savaient pas ont tout de même estimé que le Kosovo n’est pas un pays en guerre et qu'on ne pouvait pas accorder le droit d'asile à Leonarda et sa famille. Ils n'avaient plus le droit d'être en France. Un arrêté d'expulsion a été pris. C'est à ce moment-là que l'histoire de Leonarda est devenue publique. Les policiers sont venus la chercher dans le bus qui devait l'emmener, avec sa classe, en sortie scolaire. C'est ce qui a fait scandale. Quand ils sont à l'école, les enfants doivent être protégés. La police ne doit pas venir les chercher devant tous leurs camarades. Plusieurs personnalités politiques se sont déclarées choquées par ce qu'avait subi Leonarda. Des lycéens ont organisé des manifestations pour la soutenir, ainsi qu'un autre lycéen expulsé de France. Pour calmer les choses, le président de la République François Hollande a proposé que Leonarda revienne seule en France, car c'est envers elle seule que la France avait un geste à faire. Mais Leonarda a refusé. Elle ne veut pas quitter sa famille.
JDE (Texte adapté)

Tatouages de couleur: quels sont les dangers?

Tatouages de couleur: quels sont les dangers?
L'agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM) veut interdire 59 colorants sur 153 produits utilisés par les tatoueurs. Neuf encres sur dix seraient concernées. Finalement, il ne restera que 27 colorants rouges, 13 blancs, 13 orange, 12 jaunes, 6 noirs, 3 violet et 3 bruns. On pourra donc continuer à se faire tatouer en noir, blanc, gris, vert et bleu. Mais là encore, seulement dans certaines teintes limitées. Ces colorants sont soupçonnés d'être nocifs. Dans un communiqué publié en janvier 2013, le Syndicat national des dermatologues (Sndv) avait, lui, estimé que les encres contiennent « des métaux toxiques » ainsi que des types d'hydrocarbures, dont la plupart sont cancérigènes. Certaines couleurs seraient plus dangereuses que d'autres, selon le Sndv.
« Injectés sous l'épiderme, certains composants sont mal tolérés par l'organisme. Le rouge, par exemple, qui serait le plus allergène. Mais toutes les couleurs le sont plus qu'un noir pur. Les encres rouges contiennent du fer, du cadmium, du mercure (il ne serait plus utilisé, mais on en trouve encore) et des encres blanches mélangées avec le rouge (le titane, l'aluminium, le calcium...). Le problème de ces encres blanches est qu'elles sont présentes sous forme de nanoparticules qui, du fait de leur taille, peuvent avoir une action neurotoxique ». Les allergies seraient les complications les plus fréquentes : démangeaisons, gonflements, lésions. Dans le rapport de l'Académie de médecine intitulé « Piercings et tatouages, la fréquence des complications justifie une réglementation », on indique que ces allergies sont dues aux pigments métalliques tels que le chrome et le cobalt.
Huffpost, le 30 novembre 2013 (Texte adapté)

Courses online

Courses online
For those students who struggle to leave their beds for a 9 a.m. lecture, the idea of studying online wherever and whenever you want – including under the duvet with a laptop – may seem like a dream come true. Soon some students will be able to do just that, as will anybody with a computer and internet connection, because a number of universities are planning to offer some of their courses online. Not only will these offer greater flexibility to online learners around the world, they will also be free.
EdX, an online platform founded by Harvard, Berkeley and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has already attracted 800,000 students from 192 countries since it started in autumn 2012. Significantly, the platform has developed an examination process, which means that online learners can graduate from an EdX course with a certificate and a grade.
However, it seems unlikely, for the time being, that online higher education will supersede traditional on-campus university degrees. It is well-known that many leading institutions, including Oxford and Cambridge, are absent from a list of 17 universities that have signed up to give away their course content online.
An obstacle preventing online courses from being taken seriously is the fact that many have a high drop-out rate. For instance, although 155,000 students registered online to take MIT’s courses on electronics on EdX, only 7,200 students completed them. With no tutors or lecturers to help you in person, self-motivation and discipline are required in abundance to see a course through to the end.

The decline of “Once upon a time…”

Bedtime stories: The decline of “Once upon a time….”
Once upon a time, parents read bedtime stories to their children... But now it seems that the fairy tale is over. According to a poll of mums and dads with under-sevens, 36 per cent of parents never pick up a book with their little ones. Of those who do read with their kids, just 21 per cent make time for a story before bed every night. The study also showed that nearly half of the kids would rather watch TV or play with toys or computer games.
In light of the findings, Littlewoods.com, a British online retailer behind the study, has teamed up with 31-year-old British pop star Natasha Hamilton to get youngsters back into reading. Littlewoods and Natasha have just launched a bedtime story competition for children under seven to draw pictures and create their own tale. The winning entry will be turned into an audio book, narrated by Natasha. The pop star said: “As a mum of three, I know how enjoyable bedtime stories are for my kids. I’m really excited about seeing all the different story ideas. I can’t wait to see what the kids come up with. Choosing a winner will not be easy”.
Experts say that one of the key ways of helping children to learn to read and write well is to give them a love of books. However, some parents blame a lack of time for not reading with their children, while others say they are just too stressed, or that their kids are simply not interested. Surprisingly enough, the vast majority of parents were told bedtime stories regularly when they were little.

What’s in a Name?

Gandalf - magician - The lord of the ringRecently, a couple in New Zealand was not allowed to name their baby son 4Real. Even though New Zealand has quite liberal rules about naming children, names beginning with a number are not allowed. They decided to call him Superman instead.
In many countries around the world, unusual names for children are becoming more popular, especially since the increasing fashion for celebrities to give their children silly names. In Britain, you can call a child almost anything you like - the only restrictions on parents relate to offensive words. Some parents choose names which come from popular culture. For example, there have been six boys named Gandalf after the character in the Lord of the Rings novels and films. Equally, names relating to sport are fairly common - since 1984, 36 children have been called Arsenal after the football team.
Other countries have much stricter rules about how parents should name their children. Countries including Japan, Denmark, Germany and Argentina have an approved list of names from which parents must choose. In China, there are some rules about what you may call a child - no foreign letters or symbols are allowed. As a result, just a year ago, a couple could not name their baby son @.
In Britain, some names which were previously considered old-fashioned have become more popular again, such as Maisie or Ella for a girl, or Alfie or Noah for a boy. But the most popular names are not the silly ones. The top names are fairly traditional - Jack, Charlie and Thomas for boys and Grace, Ruby and Jessica for girls.

Examenes Comunidad Valenciana inglés resueltos

Examenes Comunidad Valenciana inglés resueltos




Exámenes Valencia Inglés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos


Examenes Galicia PAU resueltos

Examenes Galicia Ingles PAU resueltos



Exámenes Galicia Inglés PAU resueltos

 

Exámenes Galicia Francés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos

Examenes Galicia Inglés resueltos

Examenes Galicia Ingles PAU resueltos



Exámenes Galicia Inglés PAU resueltos

 

Exámenes Galicia Francés PAU resueltos


Otros Exámenes Resueltos

St Valentine’s Day - Andalucía

Lupercalia - St Valentine’s Day
Valentine’s Day originates from the ancient Roman fertility festival of Lupercalia. During the festival, young men would draw the names of women from a box, and each couple would be paired until the following year’s celebration. Often they would fall in love and marry.
At around 270 AD Rome was facing battles and civil uprising. The men were not keen to join the army. Emperor Claudius II believed that the men did not want to leave their loved ones and summarily canceled all marriages and engagements. Two priests, Valentine and Marius, disobeyed the decree and secretly performed marriage ceremonies. Valentine was caught on February 14th and dragged to jail. Later in the day he was clubbed to death and beheaded. It is said that, before his execution, Valentine himself had fallen in love with the jailer’s daughter. He signed his final note to her, “From your Valentine.”
The fertility festival was celebrated until 496 AD when Pope Gelasius replaced it with a similar celebration. For patron saint of the celebration he chose the lovers’ saint, St Valentine. He also moved the date of the celebration from the 15th of February to the date of St Valentine’s death, February 14th. Through the centuries, Valentine’s Day came to be remembered more as the festival of love than as a religious day.
In 1969 it was dropped from the Roman Catholic calendar as a designated feast day. Esther Howland, the woman who produced the first commercial American Valentine’s Day cards in the 1840s, sold $5,000 in cards her first year of business. Today, over 1 billion Valentine’s cards are sent in the US – second in number only to Christmas cards.

January sales

January sales
People who are addicted to shopping are nowadays called shopaholics. For these shopaholics, the post-Christmas period means only one thing - sales!
Across the country, prices are reduced on clothing, electronics, home furnishings and more, but London is the place for serious shopping, and you can certainly pick up some amazing bargains.
The sales start on Boxing Day, 26th December, and continue for the month of January, but the keenest bargain hunters get there early to be first through the doors. In Oxford Street queues form outside shops before pre-dawn openings for the start of their sales. At Brent Cross, in north London, hundreds of people queue at 3:30 am for the “Next” clothing store’s sale which begins at 4 am. Some hardy individuals even camp outside the shops to be first in the line.
Consumers who go to the shops are rewarded with discounts of up to 80%, as department stores join the sales frenzy. The shops are packed with people moving around as the sales get into full swing, with more than half a million people converging on London’s West End.
Some people are taking their partners shopping with them and buying their Christmas presents in the sale - a practical but unromantic way of making sure you get the gift you really want. For a less exciting but less stressful shopping experience, online retailers also participate in the January sales of
their own. The most organised of all are those who are already doing their present shopping for next Christmas, in the January sales!

Ce n’est pas un secret

Ce n’est pas un secret, les Français ne sont pas des champions en matière de langues étrangères
Ce n’est pas un secret, les Français ne sont pas des champions en matière de langues étrangères. Pour pallier ces lacunes, une nouvelle méthode d’apprentissage pourrait nous faciliter la tâche : le chant. Une étude britannique […] révèle qu’apprendre des mots étrangers en les chantant, permet de mieux les retenir. […] Les chercheurs ont testé des adultes sur la langue hongroise, à priori peu familière des Britanniques. Particulièrement difficile à maîtriser, la langue possède une structure très différente des langues anglo-saxonnes ou latines. Le hongrois est une langue dite « agglutinante ». La majorité des mots sont formés en ajoutant un ou plusieurs suffixes à une racine, ce qui permet à un seul mot d’en remplacer plusieurs en français (exemple : kézem, ma main, kézemben, dans ma main).
[…] Les participants ont écouté une série de mots, pour ensuite les répéter pendant 15 minutes. Certains, en les récitant de manière traditionnelle, d’autres en chantant. Ils ont alors été soumis à un test pour noter les mots qui ont été retenus. Les adultes qui ont choisi de chanter ont retenu deux fois plus de mots que leurs camarades. […] Lorsqu’ils ont été soumis à ces mêmes tests des heures plus tard, ils les avaient encore en mémoire.
[…] La plupart des gens se souviennent régulièrement des mots qu’ils ont entendus dans des chansons. Toute la question est de savoir si la mélodie fournit un repère supplémentaire dans la mémoire des gens. L’utilisation du chant est déjà une évidence à l’école primaire. Pour l’enfant, les mélodies sont un facilitateur de parole. La pratique de la chanson favorise l’acquisition de la musicalité de la langue.

Pour la planète, pour vous

Pour la planète, pour vous
« Si vous ne le faites pas pour la planète, faites-le pour vous ». Une nouvelle campagne de lutte contre les déchets a été lancée vendredi par le ministre de l'Écologie. S'adressant à la fois aux particuliers, aux entreprises et aux collectivités, cette campagne, organisée par le ministère et par l'Agence de l'environnement et de la maîtrise de l'énergie, a été annoncée à l'occasion d'un déplacement du ministre à Rouen. Il a souligné l'importance qu'attachait le gouvernement à la gestion/récupération des déchets. Chaque Français produit en moyenne 590 kilos de déchets par an. La nouvelle campagne veut faire prendre conscience que la prévention et la valorisation des déchets ne sont pas seulement nécessaires pour la protection de l'environnement, mais qu'elles peuvent profiter à chacun, notamment aux entreprises. Pour le grand public, la campagne va chercher à faire baisser le gaspillage alimentaire, qui atteint 20 kilos par habitant et par an. Elle va aussi inciter au réemploi, qui permet d'éviter 850.000 tonnes de déchets, en proposant de donner ou de vendre plutôt que de jeter (« Les bons dons font les bons amis »). En termes économiques, le réemploi et la réutilisation ne sont pas à négliger. Le chiffre d'affaires qui en est retiré est estimé à 1,25 milliard d'euros par an. Au niveau des entreprises, il s'agit de les sensibiliser aux avantages économiques représentés par une meilleure gestion des déchets. Selon une enquête, 90 % des PME1 ne connaissaient pas le coût réel de leurs déchets
AFP publié sur Sciences et Avenir (Texte adapté)

Les parents auraient donc une responsabilité dans l'échec scolaire

Les parents auraient donc une responsabilité dans l'échec scolaire
Petite frustration du prof, nous devons nous remettre en cause, mais invite-t-on les parents à le faire ? Dans notre quotidien d'enseignant, nous voyons bien que lorsque les parents suivent les études de leurs enfants, dialoguent avec les profs, les résultats sont meilleurs et les risques de décrochages réduits. Les parents nous paraissent s'en tirer un peu facilement quand ils disent : mon enfant est au lycée, je ne peux plus le suivre, et il travaille pour lui. Les parents n'ont pas à culpabiliser s'ils ne peuvent pas aider leur enfant à faire une dissertation de français, un exercice de physique. En revanche, ils sont en droit de leur demander leurs notes, les devoirs à venir. Ils peuvent les aider à travailler efficacement, en s'assurant qu'ils fassent des séances assez courtes, mais sans présence de portables ou d'ordinateurs allumés. Ils peuvent veiller à ce qu'ils aient un rythme de vie à peu près équilibré, qu'ils dorment suffisamment. Ils peuvent les aider à planifier leur travail.
Je ne veux pas terminer par un prêchi-prêcha, mais il faut rappeler une évidence : parents et profs ne sont pas ennemis. Si on attend des autres, il faut aussi accepter de donner, et d'être regardé dans sa pratique, sa façon d'enseigner pour les uns, d'accompagner leur enfant pour les autres. Ajoutons qu'avoir d'autres adultes suffisamment nombreux est une nécessité pour lutter contre la tendance de notre système à reproduire de manière choquante de si fortes inégalités scolaires et sociales.
lemonde.fr 16.12.2013

100 Candles

Receiving a birthday telegram from the Queen is a special event, but it is becoming more common all the time. Today, around 10,000 people in the UK are centenarians, or people aged one hundred years or older. A future monarch will be very busy penning birthday congratulations because the prediction is that by 2050, there will be a quarter of a million centenarians.
We know there are certain places in the world where many people already live to one hundred and beyond. They retain good health into very old age with lower rates of heart disease, cancer and dementia. Some famous examples include Okinawa and Sicily.
Why does this happen, and how can we increase our chances of a long and healthy life? Dr Lynne Corner, a researcher in ageing at Newcastle University has informed about the latest clues that scientists have found.
First of all, it may help to have the right genes. But the potential to live a long life is a complicated mix of genes and other factors that keep us healthier. We can't control our inherited traits, but we can all still benefit from adopting some of the habits and lifestyles for a healthy older age. For example, it helps to follow the so-called Mediterranean diet, which is high in fruit and vegetables. It is low in fat and salt, and includes only modest amounts of meat. In the places mentioned above, everyone also stays active, even in very old age. They walk, dance and tend gardens, with daily exercise outdoors in the fresh air. And it also helps to live in very sociable communities, where families and friendship are an important part of everyday life.

Publicité et consommation

Publicité et consommation
Les enfants constituent un public important pour les spécialistes du marketing puisqu'ils possèdent leur propre pouvoir d'achat, qu'ils influencent les décisions d'achat de leurs parents et qu'ils sont les consommateurs de demain. À preuve, les dépenses faites par l'industrie pour la publicité destinées aux enfants ont littéralement explosé au cours de la dernière décennie, passant de 100 millions de dollars en 1990 à plus de 2 milliards en 2000.
De nos jours, les parents achètent davantage pour leurs enfants. Des familles plus petites et deux salaires expliquent en partie pourquoi les couples ont plus d'argent à dépenser. De même, la culpabilité des parents liée au fait qu'ils passent moins de temps avec leurs enfants peut jouer un rôle dans leurs décisions d'achat. Les jeunes d'aujourd'hui ont une plus grande autonomie au sein de la famille que les générations précédentes. Se fondant sur des études qui analysent les comportements des enfants, les spécialistes du marketing développent des stratégies sophistiquées capables d'atteindre leur jeune public. Une stratégie à laquelle recourent les spécialistes pour cibler les enfants et les adolescents est le « pouvoir d'embêter », c'est-à-dire la capacité d'un enfant de harceler ses parents jusqu'à ce qu'ils achètent un produit qu'ils n'auraient pas acheté autrement. Le marketing destiné aux enfants joue sur ce puissant outil. Cette méthode fait appel au désir qu'ont les parents d'offrir ce qu'il y a de mieux à leurs enfants et joue sur la culpabilité qu'ils peuvent ressentir de ne pas passer suffisamment de temps avec leur famille.
Habilomedias.ca (Texte adapté)

Cleopatra was not killed by a snake

Cleopatra's death
The Queen of the Nile ended her life in 30 BC. According to legend it was the bite of an Egyptian cobra which caused her death. After losing the Battle of Actium, her Roman lover, Mark Antony, is said to have committed suicide. Cleopatra did likewise, according to tradition, by killing herself. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media. Cleopatra is usually portrayed as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal.
Now Christoph Schaefer, a German historian and professor at the University of Trier, has presented evidence on a television programme that drugs and not a snake were the cause of death. He said that the bite of a snake would have given her an agonizing death over several days. "Queen Cleopatra was famous for her beauty and was unlikely to have subjected herself to a long and disfiguring death," said Schaefer, the author of a best-selling book in Germany called Cleopatra.
"Cleopatra wanted to remain beautiful in her death to maintain her myth. The last female Pharaoh probably took a lethal cocktail, which, back then, was a well-known mixture that led to a painless death within just a few hours. We consulted eminent zoologists and toxicologists and they said that a snake bite would have been too uncertain and taken too long," Professor Schaefer added.

La nature est poétique: les papillons boivent les larmes* des tortues

Le nature est poétique: les papillons boivent les larmes* des tortues
La forêt amazonienne de l'Ouest est une région dont la concentration de sodium est parmi les plus faible de la planète. En effet, cette région est loin de l'océan Atlantique, à plus de 1600 km, et les particules minérales normalement emportées par le vent sont coupées par la barrière des Andes.
Le manque de sel dans la région a conduit les animaux à adopter des comportements inhabituels. Par exemple, les papillons sont attirés par les larmes des tortues, car leurs larmes contiennent du sel et du sodium. C'est un minéral important pour les animaux, mais peu présent à l'ouest de l'Amazonie. Les herbivores en particulier ont du mal à trouver suffisamment de sodium ou d'autres minéraux... Comme les tortues sont des carnivores, elles trouvent beaucoup de sodium : la viande contient beaucoup de sel! Il y a d’autres sources de sel que les larmes : les insectes en trouvent également dans l'urine des animaux, dans les rives boueuses* des rivières, dans les flaques d'eau, les vêtements moites* ou la transpiration des personnes, explique Geoff Gallice, un étudiant diplômé en entomologie au Florida Museum of Natural History.
Selon Richard C. Vogt, un chercheur de l'Institut national de recherche sur l'Amazonie à Manaus, ce phénomène ne semble pas se produire en dehors de la région. Il explique : «J'ai étudié les tortues en milieu naturel - du nord Etats-Unis, au Mexique et en Amazonie – pendant plus de 50 ans et je n’ai jamais vu les papillons boire les larmes des tortues ».
D’après Ségolène Brunisholz,
 http://www.annefontainefoundation.org
septembre 2008

Spain's jobless women become the boss to beat the recession

Spain's jobless women become the boss to beat the recession
When it comes to finding a job in Europe, not all citizens are born equal. If you are Spanish you have a one in four chance of being unemployed, rising to one in two if you are young. And if you are a young woman in Spain? The chances of finding yourself among the unemployed are even higher, at 54.7%. Now however, young Spanish women are finding their own solutions to the crisis, discovering the value of enterprises that has resulted in a record 800,000 businesses being set up by women in the past five years.
“The crisis allowed women to seriously consider becoming businesswomen, something many had never thought of before,” said Joan Torrent Sellens. In the past decades Spanish women have advanced in government and the public sector, but are still behind in setting up enterprises, creating less than 20% of businesses. When analysing the same figures during the crisis, Torrent Sellens found a surprising result: the number of businesses created by women had nearly doubled during the crisis, to just under 40%.
“These days you can act like a big businessman without having a lot of employees,” said Torrent Sellens. “The crisis allowed women to ask: ‘Why do I have to be a director at a multinational, earning a third of what my male counterparts are earning when I can create, my own business and lead my own project?’ The crisis gave them an alternative, their own way of breaking through the glass ceiling,” he added.
Adapted from an article by Ashifa Kassam,
The Guardian, 3 February 2014

How racist is Britain?

How racist is Britain?
In Britain, social and ethnic division is a plain fact. Ethnic minority populations concentrate in particular areas. Although mixed-race marriages are on the rise, they still comprise only 2% of all marriages. For the most part, people mix and marry with people mainly of their own cultural background, as determined by a combination of country, family origin or religion. 
Britain is a patchwork of almost hermetically sealed sub-worlds, in which class as much as race is a crucial factor. We all like to feel that we are open-minded people who can be friends with anyone, and we can also probably find a few examples of friends who do not match our demographic profile to prove our lack of insularity. But if we are honest, the vast majority live, work and socialise overwhelmingly with people of a similar social type. And the opportunities to mix are limited because many areas remain deeply inhospitable to “outsiders”.
Besides, well-intentioned promotion of multiculturalism can actually exacerbate the paranoid feeling of Britishness being under threat. When people are informed by local and national governments that they ought to embrace minority cultures more than they do, they feel they are being told that their own way of life simply isn’t good enough.
This is all clearly bad news for optimistic multiculturalists, and some will think that it suggests a negative view of human nature. On this view, the best we can hope for is little tension between communities by means of mutual tolerance. But toleration implies putting up with something you don’t much like, not embracing difference.
Julian Baggini, The Guardian, 23-1-2007

Why thin doesn’t sell?

Why thin doesn’t sell
They have been banned from the catwalk, blamed for devastating women’s self-esteem and suspected of suffering eating disorders. Now ultra-thin models face another accusation: that they’re not good at their job. New research has found that instead of being admired by women, excessively thin models are regarded as less truthful and appealing than “ordinary” women. ‘The advertising and fashion industries are reluctant to use larger models because they say that thinness sells’, said Dr Helga Dittmar, of the University of Sussex. ‘But our research has shown that thin models are less effective in selling products than average-size models’. Dittmar asked 800 women to rank the effectiveness of adverts featuring slim models. She expected women to find thin models more convincing and persuasive. ‘Instead, there was a strong message that models were evaluated more positively when they had a normal size’, she said.
These findings come after the controversy which erupted when Madrid said models at Pasarela Cibeles must have a weight in line with United Nations health guidelines. Dittmar said: ‘Only a small percentage of women can ever hope to have the bodies shown in most advertising. There are fears that images of ultra-thin models can have a number of significant consequences, including negative self-perception, depression and disordered eating. The conclusion is that thin models have a negative effect on the self-esteem of women, and this affects the effectiveness of the advertising message. ‘Compared with ultra-thin models, those who appear in ads with an average, healthy body size were viewed as more credible’.

Rural Americans have inferior Internet access

Rural Americans have inferior Internet access
The 260 residents of Ten Sleep, Wyoming, drive at least 26 miles to buy groceries and 112 to catch a plane. You wouldn’t expect an Internet entrepreneur to launch a startup here. But in 2006, Kent Holiday did just that, opening Eleutian Technology, where local teachers tutor Asian students in English through live online videos. He now employs about 500 teachers around the region.
Holiday was visiting his in-laws when he noticed the local telephone utility laying fiber-optic cable: Ten Sleep was getting high-speed Internet. In 2011, President Obama used Eleutian as an example of the Internet’s effects on rural economic development: “For local businesses, broadband access is helping them grow, prosper and compete in a global economy.”
But such access – the basic modern infrastructure many city-folk take for granted – is far from universal. Of the 19 million Americans who lack broadband access 14.5 million live in rural areas. Thirty percent of Indians living on reservations also lack access.
The more densely populated a place is, the more likely it is to have fast, affordable Internet. When people live far apart, service providers don’t profit enough to cover the costs of building and maintaining the physical infrastructure. If they do provide access, it’s often at higher prices and slower speeds than in urban areas. In the rural West, where 2 million people lack broadband access, topography is also a barrier. Mountains and narrow valleys can block signals from wireless towers and satellites and make it difficult to install fiber-optic cables.
Adapted from an article by Emily Guerin, High Country News, 3 February 2014

Cell phone jammer

Cell phone jammer illegal - Uncle Sam
It might look like a walkie talkie, but that little box is more powerfull than you think. When a cell phone jammer is turned on, it can block any cell phone service in the area. Using one is not only a federal crime but is could result in a 16,000 dólares fine and jail time.
But that did not stop Eric, a man from Philadelphia, who was fed up whith the chatty cell phone talkers on the 44 bus. According to a TV channel, Eric would fire up that jammer when he did not want to hear the conversations. "A lot of people are extremely lod, no sense of privacy or anything. When it becomes a bother, that's when I screw on the antenna and flip the switch", Eric told the reporters.
Eric claimed that he did not know it was illegal to block a cell phone signe, and thought it was a "gray area". He said he was under the impression that it was only illegal when blocking television or radio signals. "I guess I'm taking the law into my own hands and, quite frankly, I'm proud of it", he added.
This type of jammers is illegal because they could prevent cell phone communication in emergencies and because they can block other important signals such as police radio. But the bigger issue is that Eric is not alone in this jamming practice. Jammer are easy to buy at sites on the Internet. Police reported that other people in the New Jersey and New York area are using them as well. Maybe Eric's story will remind them all of just how illegal using that powerful device is.

The Tower of London

Tower of London raven claw
Image by Johanna
Ghosts are said to appear in James’s home repeatedly, but he hasn’t seen one yet. “People have died here,” says the 15-year-old boy from London. James’s father is a guard at the Tower of London, a former castle, prison, and execution place that was built in 1066 by William the Conqueror. And his family lives there!Today the Tower serves as a tourist attraction as well as a home to the guards and their families. The Tower is most famous for the prisoners who lost their lives there —and who supposedly still appear on the Tower grounds. At just 16, Lady Jane Grey was dethroned in 1553 after only a nine-day reign, and then her head was cut off by the new queen. In 1483 two young princes named Edward and Richard mysteriously disappeared. Almost 200 years later bones of two children were found near the White Tower.

Research ship trapped in Antarctic ice because of weather, not climate change

Research ship trapped in Antarctic ice
The Russian ship Akademik Shokalskiy is stuck in the Antarctic, in an area where there has been an increase in sea ice extent since the late 1970s, making ship operations difficult. Is this situation evidence that global warming is exaggerated?
The impact of climate change on ice at both poles is complex. Actually, the two polar regions have experienced very different trends in ice extent. Arctic sea ice has been declining in extent in every month of the year, with the maximum loss of almost 14% per decade being found in September. In contrast, sea ice extent around the Antarctic has increased in every month of the year with the largest increase being almost 4% per decade in March.
The reasons for the trends in sea ice are still being debated. However, for the Arctic it is estimated that the emission of greenhouse gases has contributed 50–60% of the decline of Arctic sea ice. The remaining contribution is believed to come from natural variability. But in the Antarctic the reason for the increase in ice is less clear. The pattern of sea ice change around the Antarctic is dominated by a decrease to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula and an increase across the Ross Sea, which can be attributed to more storm activity between these two areas and to the strength and direction of the winds. This pattern of change is consistent with the increasing temperatures observed over the west Antarctica, where temperatures have risen as much as anywhere in the southern hemisphere.
Adapted from an article by John Turner, theguardian.com, 3 January 2014

Viens chez moi, j'habite chez mes parents...

Couple de jeunes chez papa-maman - Young couple in bed
Le bac, c’est fait, les études à l’université ont démarré, sa nouvelle vie commence… Mais son adresse est toujours celle de ses parents. Et forcément, vivre avec un «adulescent» demande quelques ajustements pour que sa nécessaire indépendance ne transforme pas le toit familial en hôtel. La solution ? Instaurer des règles à la maison.
En apparence, rien n’a changé. Elle porte toujours ses bottes UGG et se fait des tartines de Nutella. Il a encore son sweat à capuche et continue à jouer à des jeux bizarres d’Heroic fantasy. Sauf que sous cette enveloppe familière grandit un(e) inconnu(e) : un(e) étudiant(e)! De cette espèce très particulière, propre à Paris et aux grandes villes, qui continue à habiter sous le toit de papa-maman. Et qui partage toujours, parfois à contre-coeur, son quotidien avec eux. Comment intégrer que ce jeune adulte en devenir ne fasse plus tout à fait partie du collectif «les  enfants» ? Et lui permettre, sans perdre tout contrôle, de construire son «chez-soi» dans ce qui reste fondamentalement la maison familiale. Selon la sociologue Elsa Ramos, auteur de Rester enfant, devenir adulte, l’enjeu pour le jeune, «c’est de se ménager des espaces privés sans que cette séparation s’apparente à une rupture avec les autres membres de la famille».
Par Valérie de Saint-Pierre. 19 décembre 2010. lefigaro.fr

Black Friday

Black Friday
The day after Thanksgiving has become America's biggest shopping day. Closed all day on Thursday, shopping centres all across the nation open early on Friday. Some of them open at 12:01 Friday morning, while others open at 4 a.m. Some "sleepyhead" shopping centres, like Target this year, don't open their doors on Friday until 6 a.m. From Friday to the day before Christmas, this is the season when businesses make nearly 25 per cent of what they earn in a year. This season puts many businesses "in the black", that is, they make the money they need for the year. Reporters from local TV stations interview people who sleep in tents in front of the shops a day or two before the doors open on Friday. These people patiently wait in queue to get products that are 50 per cent cheaper or more.
"Oh, we have fun," said one of the persons queuing. "We sometimes bring games to play, we watch TV and order lots of pizza, and we often meet interesting people. And, most important of all, we save a lot!" The problem, of course, is that only a very small number of products have big reductions in their prices. Apart from a few big discounts, each shop has other things that are reduced from 10 to 50 per cent, saving shoppers from $10 to $400 per item, and so Americans want to go shopping.
Not all Americans enjoy shopping. Reverend William Graham wants to change Black Friday’s name. "We want to call it Remember Jesus Friday. People should start the season with the right attitude. Christmas has become a Season of Shopping. We want to make it a Season of Giving. And we don't mean giving material things. We mean giving your back, your mind, and your hands. Help an old lady clean up her house. Teach a kid how to read. Visit sick people in the hospital or in nursing homes. Give food to the Red Cross. Celebrate Christmas by remembering Jesus and forgetting Santa Claus."
Adapted from http://www.eslyes.com

Domestic violence against women

Domestic violence against women
Inside the family there is a historical tradition ignoring violence. Abuse by a male relative is the most general form of violence against women. This abuse is directed at women who are wives or partners, and who are classified by society as male property.
According to a survey, between one quarter and one third of women from different countries report physical abuse within their families, and even more report emotional or psychological abuse. This is a large number, especially when one considers that many incidences of domestic violence are often silenced.
For women, there is a greater risk for violence in the home than anywhere else. Both physical violence and intimidation result in health problems. By repeated violations of their physical and mental autonomy, basic human rights are taken away from women.
Domestic violence against women must be perceived as a global problem rather than a private matter. It must receive appropriate attention from the international community as an issue affecting women’s health and their ability to participate fully in society.

Make room for the robots

A woman & robot couple dancingWhen world-famous cellist Yo-Yo Ma announced that he would be playing with the Detroit Symphony, every seat was sold. However, Yo-Yo Ma’s performance was not the only thing that amazed the audience. The conductor did too. The conductor stepped onto the stage and lifted both arms to direct the musicians who played the song "The Impossible Dream." Until recently, that is exactly what this performance would have been. This is because ASIMO, the conductor, is only eight years old and 1.2 meters tall. It is also a robot. The scientists who built ASIMO equipped it with many abilities such as climbing stairs, recognizing faces, or even helping musicians make beautiful music.
Since the 1960s, robots have been doing jobs that are too boring or dangerous for humans. These industrial robots, unlike ASIMO, do not have a humanoid appearance. But now that robots are moving into our homes, many are starting to look more like us. One company has built a dish-washing robot called Monty. To reach the sink, Monty needed to be more than 1.5 meters tall and have a human-like hand to pick up coffee cups. "Once you make a robot for human environments," says the company’s manager, "you end up getting closer to a human shape. But building robots to look like people is not always necessary.” His company also makes a discshaped vacuuming robot called the Roomba and more than 3 million are already in use.

Nomophobia: Mobile Phone Addiction

Nomophobia: Mobile Phone Addiction
Are you addicted to your phone? According to a recent survey in the UK, almost two thirds of respondents were afflicted with “nomophobia” or “no mobilephone phobia”. “Some people get panic attacks when they are without their phones,” said Michael Carr, an adolescent psychologist. “Others become very concerned and make all endeavors to locate their mobile phone. I have clients who abstain from school or their part-time jobs to look for their phones when they cannot find them in the morning.”
According to the survey, the younger you are, the more prone you are to nomophobia. The youngest age group (18-24) tops the nomophobic list at 77%, which is 11% more than that of the next group – those aged 25-34. “This is the most tribal generation of young people,” said Carr. “Adolescents want to be with their friends on a 24-hour basis.”
The reasons that drive young people to nomophobia include boredom and insecurity, while some young nomophobes cannot bear solitude. “Many of my clients go to bed with their mobile phones just like one did with a teddy bear in the old days,” he said. “While teddy doesn't communicate, the phone does,” said Carr, adding insomnia to the list of potential problems. “Some kids cannot entertain themselves. The phone has become our digital security blanket.”
Accidents lurk while nomophobes fix their attention on phones. Nomophobes reported accidents while messaging or talking on the phone, which include minor road accidents, falling while going upstairs or downstairs and stumbling while walking. More than 20% also reported pain in the thumbs due to excessive texting.

"The big bottle"

Man running under a big bottle on the beachIn Spanish cities, at night, crowds of young people wander the streets in search of a party, meeting their friends and stopping to drink. When a large mass of people get together, a  party spontaneously breaks out. This phenomenon, translated into English as booze-up or binge-drinking, is perceived by local governments as a social problem because it is impossible to predict where it will take place and because drinkers are as young as 12.
In addition, now it has become fashionable to compete for the biggest national drinking party, as cities from Málaga to Madrid and Barcelona to Bilbao try to outdo one another by organizing the largest gathering. Word is spread by email and text messages, and teenagers crowd into city centres, armed with bottles of soft drinks generously mixed with alcohol.
City councils are very cautious about calling in the police for fear that drunken youths will turn to violence. The Government has tried to introduce emergency legislation but this is unlikely to have much impact, because, across Spain, regional authorities have set different minimum ages to buy alcohol.
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