La poubelle, objet du XXIe siècle

La poubelle, objet du XXIe siècle: Salon de l'Environnement
Méprisée, cachée, reléguée dans un coin, la poubelle est pourtant d'une nécessité indiscutable. Les chiffres sont d'ailleurs là pour l’attester. En France, on en compte en moyenne quatre par foyer. Près de cent millions de paquets de sacs-poubelle sont vendus chaque année pour un chiffre d'affaires de 1.150 milliard de francs. Chacun de nous produit environ 350 kilos de déchets par an. Un record historique qui inscrira assurément l'homme du XXIe siècle pour le titre peu reluisant d’"Homo détritus".
Pas étonnant qu'aujourd'hui de très sérieux organismes se penchent* sur l'art et la manière d'utiliser ce vil objet. L'État est le premier à montrer l'exemple. Les écologistes, appelant à utiliser des produits recyclables, s'engagent à jeter intelligemment afin de protéger l'environnement. Certaines municipalités, conscientes que « mieux on trie*, moins on paie», développent une politique active de gestion des déchets.
De même, des initiatives privées se multiplient à l'échelon national. C'est le cas de l'opération Robin des Briques, qui se charge depuis 1994 de collecter les briques alimentaires (qui ont contenu lait, jus de fruits, etc.) dans les écoles; elle a pour vocation de sensibiliser les enfants et leurs parents aux problèmes de l'environnement. Car sachez-le, le tri et le recyclage dorment des résultats surprenants: un coup de baguette magique et vingt-cinq bouteilles en plastique se transforment en un pull polaire, un bidon de produit d'entretien se métamorphose en peinture de sol, etc. Pour certains, la récup* est aussi une source d'inspiration, comme les artistes de la galerie Artkrat, qui exposeront leurs œuvres au prochain Salon de l’Environnement.
D'après Marie Tourres avec Myriam André

Visite Évora

Visite Évora

Como chegar

A Região de Évora é atravessada no sentido transversal pela auto-estrada Lisboa-Madrid (A6).
Longitudinalmente, o IP2 une as capitais de distrito do Alentejo interior (Beja, Évora e Portalegre) ao Algarve e à Beira Baixa.
Vindo do Norte pela A1 Porto-Lisboa, entra-se na Região tomando a saída para Santarém e seguindo a direcção A13. Esta auto-estrada entronca na A6 entre Marateca e Vendas Novas.
Vindo do Algarve, quem optar pela A2 (Faro-Lisboa) encontra a mesma A6 na Marateca.
Vindo de Espanha, pode entrar-se na Região por Elvas (A6) e por S. Leonardo (junto a Mourão / Alqueva).
Quem não se desloca em transporte próprio, tem à disposição a Rede Nacional de Expressos, com carreiras regulares para Évora a partir de qualquer ponto do país (www.rede-expressos.pt) e as vias férreas que ligam Faro e Lisboa à cidade de Évora (www.cp.pt).
A circulação na Região é simples. As estradas secundárias e municipais constituem, por si só, percursos de descoberta com trânsito relativamente reduzido e excelentes vistas panorâmicas.
Quem pretender visitar a Região em autonomia mas não tem transporte próprio, pode recorrer aos Carros de Aluguer (identificados com a letra A nas portas laterais), aos Táxis e aos Rent-a-Car. Na cidade de Évora existe uma “Linha Azul”, serviço de autocarro que circula pelos principais locais da cidade.
Existem carreiras regulares de autocarro que ligam diariamente as várias localidades da Região. Os seus horários estão adaptados às necessidades laborais e escolares dos residentes, pelo que a sua utilização com objectivos turísticos nem sempre é fácil, sobretudo quando se pretende uma pequena viagem de ida e volta no mesmo dia.

 

Onde ficar

A diversidade da oferta é uma das características do alojamento na Região mas, ao contrário do que sucedia há uns anos atrás, a informação é abundante e bastante detalhada.
Hoje, pode visitar através da net as Pousadas Históricas, belos hotéis conventuais de 4 e 5 estrelas ou requintados hotéis rurais; apreciar a qualidade de outras unidades de hotelaria tradicional, de pequena e média dimensão; sentir o acolhimento familiar e a tranquilidade das casas de Turismo em Espaço Rural; ou ver por dentro o ambiente dos Parques de Campismo.
Todas as unidades de alojamento servem pequenos almoços. Quando não dispõem de serviço de restaurante, nomeadamente no caso do Turismo em Espaço Rural, por vezes servem as refeições principais mediante solicitação prévia.

 

Onde comer

Se utilizar critérios como a importância atribuída à decoração e ao conforto, o profissionalismo do atendimento, a variedade da ementa, a qualidade da confecção, o apuro das chamadas “especialidades da casa” ou a generosidade da carta de vinhos, verificará que existem na Região restaurantes de todas as categorias, para todos os gostos e, também, para todas as bolsas.
Ainda há “tascas” genuínas onde se come muito bem.
Há restaurantes médios, bons e muito bons, uns com a chamada “cozinha honesta”, outros com rasgos de génio em alguns pratos.
E há restaurantes de topo de gama: de abertura relativamente recente ou já muito testados pelo tempo; de uma extrema fidelidade à gastronomia regional ou com propostas de recriação “gourmet” da tradição, sempre com base nos melhores produtos locais.
Se não puder ou não quiser deleitar-se todos os dias com a boa gastronomia alentejana, saiba que tem outras opções: cafetarias com serviço de refeições ligeiras, casas especializadas em sanduíches e saladas e boas pastelarias para lanchar.
Só tem que ter cuidado com as horas: quase todas as cozinhas dos restaurantes fecham às 22h e são poucas as excepções que confirmam a regra.
Fora de horas, pode contar com serviço de snack em algumas cafetarias, bares e discotecas.

 

É útil saber

Se tiver algum problema de saúde durante a sua estadia na Região de Évora, recorra aos Centros de Saúde, existentes em todas as sedes de concelho, ou ao Hospital de Évora, com serviços de urgência 24 horas por dia.
Se é cidadão da União Europeia, da Islândia, Liechtenstein, Noruega ou Suíça, e é beneficiário de um sistema de segurança social no seu país, faça-se acompanhar do Cartão Europeu de Seguro de Doença. Este cartão assegura-lhe a prestação de cuidados de saúde nos serviços oficiais e/ou convencionados, sendo-lhe cobradas apenas as taxas e/ou comparticipações em vigor para os cidadãos nacionais.
Adaptado de:

Paare in getrennten betten

Paare in getrennten betten
Getrennte Schlafzimmer als Zeichen einer ermüdeten Beziehung?

 

Neulich war ich bei einem Abendessen mit Freunden. Die Frage "Schlaft ihr eigentlich noch in einem Bett?" kam dort ungefähr so an, als hätte man sich nach deren letzten „One-Night-Stand“ (=einmalige außereheliche Beziehung) erkundigt.
Die Schlafzimmerfrage scheint also einiges über unser Verständnis von Liebe zu erzählen; als seien unsere Schlafgewohnheiten so etwas wie ein Spiegel der Beziehung. Nach dem Motto: Nur wer besonders dicht aneinandergekuschelt die Nacht verbringt, kann sich besonders lieb haben. Für viele folgt getrennten Schlafzimmern bald die sichere Scheidung.
Nun kennt die nächtliche Innigkeit viele Nuancen. Das beginnt mit Alltäglichkeiten wie mit der Entscheidung für oder gegen einen Schlafanzug. Oder der Bettzeugfrage. Die Deutschen scheinen zum Beispiel ihr Federbett so ungern zu teilen wie ihr Kopfkissen. Jeder schläft am liebsten für sich allein unter der warmen Decke.
Honoré de Balzac konnte sich nichts Romantischeres als das weltberühmte französische „Grand lit“ (= Ehebett) vorstellen. Schon aus liebestechnischen Gründen riet er Paaren unbedingt zum ritzefreien Doppelbett. Die zwei getrennten Einzelbetten waren für ihn Liebestöter. Auf der anderen Seite des Atlantiks wurden die Zwillingsbetten ein Jahrhundert später sogar Staatsangelegenheit. Das US-Familien-Ministerium machte die Singlebetten für die steigenden Scheidungsraten verantwortlich.
Allerdings gibt es inzwischen für jedes Verhalten auch schon wieder eine eigene Studie. So findet Paul Rosenblatt von der Universität in Minnesota, dass die gelebte Intimität des gemeinsamen Schlafens eine zivilisatorische Errungenschaft sei – die warm hält, das Sexualleben fördert und in Notfällen wie Diabetesschock oder Herzinfarkt sogar lebensrettend sein kann.
Quelle: Der Tagesspiegel, Nora Sobich, 23.11.2010 (verkürzt)

Egypt travel guide

Egypt travel guide: Doing business & staying in touch

Doing business & staying in touch

Courtesy and hospitality are important when doing business in Egypt. The host of a business meeting will usually offer tea or a small snack before commencing. It’s polite to refuse the first offer, but once the host insists, the guest should then accept. Alcohol is legal, but should be avoided until visitors know their Egyptian colleague's attitude towards drinking, and, if acceptable, should be drunk in moderation. It is not considered suitable for women to over-indulge in alcohol. If invited to a business lunch, expect food to be lavish and plentiful.
Throughout the Arab world, it is considered bad manners either to display anger or to openly criticize another person in public. Tact and diplomacy are always required. In social life, punctuality is almost laughable. For business, visitors should be on time but expect locals to be often late, and do not take offence. Men should not offer to shake a woman's hand, and vice versa, unless clearly invited to do so. Men and women should dress smartly for business meetings – suits and tie for men; suit for women or smart trousers/skirt/jacket – and always dress modestly. Shoulders and knees should never be shown.

Economy:

On taking power in 1970, Anwar al-Sadat introduced a policy of infitah (openness) towards investment. Egypt's economy underwent rapid growth during the 1970s with the quick expansion of the oil industry, tourism and the Suez Canal, and it has continued to expand in subsequent decades.
The tourist sector is expanding rapidly, particularly along the Red Sea and Mediterranean coasts, despite sporadic terrorist activities of Islamic fundamentalists. Agriculture, which relies on irrigation from the Nile, employs one-third of the working population. Foreign aid, especially from the USA, is an important source of government funds.

Internet:

There are internet cafés in the main cities, including Cairo, Alexandria, Dahab and Luxor. Even small, more remote towns including Siwa will have at least one venue, usually in the market area. Connection is usually reliable. Tourists can also access the Internet in hotels, with in-room Wi-Fi available, though often at a costly price.

Media:

The Egyptian press is one of the most influential and widely read in the region, while Egyptian TV and the film industry supplies much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City. Press freedom is encouraged. Press laws which allow prison sentences for libel have encouraged self-censorship on sensitive issues.

Textauszug aus dem Tagebuch der Anne Frank

Tagebuch der Anne Frank
A Samstag, 20. Juni 1942
Liebe Kitty!
Zuerst will ich meine Lebensgeschichte erzählen.
Als meine Eltern heirateten, war mein Vater 36, meine Mutter 25 Jahre alt. Meine Schwester Margot ist im Jahre 1926 in Frankfurt am Main geboren.
Am 12. Juni 1929 bin ich dort geboren. Da wir Juden sind, emigrierten wir im Jahre 1933 nach Holland. Dort wurde mein Vater Direktor der Firma Travis A.-G. Die Travis A.-G. arbeitete eng mit der Firma Kolen u. Co. in demselben Gebäude zusammen.
Unsere Familienmitglieder, die in Deutschland zurückgeblieben waren, wurden von den Hitler-Faschisten verfolgt. 1938 flüchteten die beiden Brüder meiner Mutter nach Amerika. Meine Großmutter kam zu uns. Sie war damals 73 Jahre alt. Nach 1940 kamen für uns schlechtere Zeiten.
Erst kam der Krieg, dann zogen die Deutschen in Holland ein. Sie erließen immer neue Gesetze und für die Juden wurde es besonders schlimm. Sie mussten den Stern an der Kleidung tragen, sie mussten ihre Fahrräder abgeben, sie durften nicht mehr mit der Straßenbahn fahren, mit dem Auto schon gar nicht. Juden durften nur von 3 bis 5 Uhr einkaufen....
Anne

B Sonntag, 11. Juli 1943
Liebe Kitty!
Ich bin in der letzten Zeit sehr kurzsichtig geworden und brauche eine Brille (dann sehe ich bestimmt wie eine Eule aus). (...) Mutter wollte mich zum Augenarzt schicken.
Mir war richtig schwindlig: Auf die Straße! Zuerst hatte ich richtige Angst, doch dann freute ich mich. Aber so einfach ist das nicht. Alle Gefahren und Schwierigkeiten mussten überlegt werden. Ich bin neugierig, ob ich noch zum Doktor gehen soll. Ich glaube es nicht ...
Miep schleppt sich für uns ab, sie ist ein richtiger Packesel! Fast täglich kauft sie irgendwo Gemüse und bringt es in großen Einkaufstaschen auf ihrem Fahrrad zu uns. An jedem Sonnabend bringt sie auch immer fünf neue Bibliotheksbücher mit. Deshalb freuen wir uns schon immer auf den Sonnabend. Andere Menschen wissen gar nicht, wie wichtig Bücher für uns Eingeschlossene sind.
Anne

C Freitag, 23. Juli 1943
Liebe Kitty!
Heute will ich Dir erzählen, was jeder zuerst machen will, wenn wir wieder frei sind.
Margot und Herr van Daan wünschen sich zuerst ein heißes Bad. Die Wanne soll bis oben voll Wasser sein und mindestens eine halbe Stunde wollen sie in der Wanne liegen. Frau van Daan will am liebsten gleich in eine Konditorei gehen und viel Torte essen. Herr Dussel freut sich auf das Wiedersehen mit seiner Frau, Mutter will so gerne eine Tasse Kaffee trinken. Vater besucht zuerst Herrn Vossen, Peter geht gleich in die Stadt ins Kino. Und ich??? Ich würde vor Freude gar nicht wissen, was ich zuerst machen soll.
Am meisten wünsche ich mir, dass wir wieder in der eigenen Wohnung sind. Dort können wir dann tun und lassen, was wir wollen.
Anne

D Dienstag, 6. Juni 1944
Liebe Kitty!
Die Invasion hat begonnen. Morgens um 8 Uhr sagte das englische Radio: Bombenabwürfe auf Calais, Boulogne, Le Havre und Cherbourg.
Englische Radiosendung mittags 1 Uhr: 11 000 Flugzeuge stehen bereit und fliegen unaufhörlich hin und her, um Truppen zu bringen und Bomben abzuwerfen. 4 000 Landungsfahrzeuge und kleine Schiffe bringen zwischen Cherbourg und Le Havre Truppen und Material an Land. Englische und amerikanische Truppen kämpfen gegen die Deutschen. Soll denn nun wirklich die langersehnte Befreiung kommen? Wird uns das Jahr 1944 den Sieg bringen? Wir wissen es noch nicht, aber die Hoffnung belebt uns, gibt uns wieder Mut, macht uns wieder stark.
Ich bin sehr vergnügt – vielleicht sitze ich im Oktober wieder auf der Schulbank. Aber ich will nicht voreilig sein.
Anne

Fuente: Anne Frank Tagebuch. Fassung von Otto H. Frank und Mirjam Pressler. 
Aus dem Niederländischen von Mirjam Pressler. 
Frankfurt am Main: Fischer Taschenbuchverlag 1992.

The Jane Austen Centre

The Jane Austen Centre
Welcome to Jane Austen Centre. The focus of this exhibition is Jane Austen’s five years living and socialising in Bath – the places she lived in and visited. We hope you enjoy your visit.
The Jane Austen Centre in Bath at No. 40 Gay Street is a house very similar to No. 25, where Jane Austen lived for a few months following her father’s death. These Georgian town houses in Gay Street were built between 1735 and 1760.
The houses are alike in design, although this house had a large extension added, during the 20th century, which covers the whole of the garden. It is in this space that the permanent exhibition is placed.
Within the exhibition are displayed a number of hand-made reproduction period costumes, which have been created using authentic fabrics, in colours contemporary with the period.
Refresh yourself during and after your visit at our Tea Rooms and enjoy a pot of real leaf tea, some home-made cakes or a delicious light snack.
The Centre Giftshop is a treasure of Jane Austen – related gifts, some specially designed for, exclusive to, the Centre. There is a range of writing paper, pens, post cards and high-quality reproduction cards. We have a comprehensive stock of books about Jane Austen, her life, her family and times.

Ministers who justify state snooping might now learn that the biters can be bit

News of the World scandal - Banksy
Every journalist knows that breaking the law is inexcusable - except, of course, where there is an excuse. As a general rule, what I write, however obtained, is in the public interest. What you write is money-grubbing prurience. Now what was that juicy story you told me the other day?
The News of the World scandal is in danger of submerging the body politic in a wave of hypocrisy. The paper did what some newspapers have long done, which is scrape the dustbin of gossip in whic lurks the fame of all public figures. Aided by electronic surveillance, journalists use private detectives, hackers, oddballs and dodgy policemen to dig the dirt on behalf of their readers and shareholders. They usually pay money, even if this is not allowed.
Sometimes, as with the Daily Telegraph on MPs' expenses, we are served copper-bottomed sensation. Although the scoop was allegedly based on payments for theft, the world cheered the "public interest". Other times, as with the (Princess) Dianagate tapes, salacious material is uncovered with no shred of public interest but which no amount of self-restraint could keep from the public eye. In the case of the News of the World, the ease with which mobile phones can be eavesdropped on supplied a mountain of celebrity gossip.
Human Rights law may offer "a right to respect for private and family life, home and conversation", but this is merely a pious hope. When a cloud of secret range-finders can hover over the mobile phones of the stars, policing is near impossible. Hackers can squat in caravans or attics, equipped from any backstreet store. The News of the World gained access to thousands of phone messages. These could as easily have been posted on the web.
Although the police have decided to take no further action, the case raises intriguing but tangential issues. It is implausible for the former News of the World editor, Andy Coulson, to plead that he did not know what was going on. No editor would be left in the dark about the costly source of such scoops. Even a remark that "I would rather not know" admits responsibility.
When a member of the paper's staff, Clive Goodman, went to jail in 2007 for a hacking offence, a parliamentary committee was told that he was a “rotten apple” and an isolated case. We now learn that Coulson’s staff had access to thousands of mobile phone records, all illegally obtained and currently in the hands of the police.
The paper then lavishly paid off some of its victims on condition of confidentiality, while the police (and Crown Prosecution Service) agreed to turn a blind eye. They neither pursued other offences by News of the World reporters nor informed those whose private lives they knew to have been compromised. The police appeared to collude in a massive breach of privacy.
The much-vaunted framework of parliamentary oversight and media self-regulation was also left looking idiotic. We have been told for 18 years that the presence of working editors on the voluntary Press Complaints Commission brings a weight of expertise and judgement to its decisions. This is selfserving rubbish, trotted out by successive PCC chairmen who enjoy cavorting with the barons of media power.
The case for non-statutory regulation of the press remains strong, but depends heavily on that regulation being scrupulous and outspoken, as it largely was under the old Press Council with its vigorous chairmen. The present Press Complaints Commission claims to work its magic "behind the scenes". It works no magic. It is dead.
None of this impinges on the central issue of the News of the World case, that chaos now surrounds the confidentiality of electronic data in Britain. That law-breaking now depends wholly on the “robustness” of an excuse is hopeless. Most people accepted that the Telegraph was justified in using stolen information to reveal details of MPs’ expenses. But the argument was tested neither in the courts nor before the PCC. It was granted by acclamation.
© Simon Jenkins “The Guardian”, 10th July 2009

It's all about me

The Culture of Fear - Frank Furedi
It used to be that only oppressed minorities had the right to lay claim to victim status, but not any more: it seems that anyone and everyone can be a victim now. Forget the Oppression Olympics, the pointless debate over which identity group suffers the most discrimination; these days, as Frank Furedi noted in The Culture of Fear: "We are all expected to compete, like guests on a television programme, to prove that we are the most put-upon and pathetic people in the house, the most deserving of counselling and compensation."
It was Margaret Thatcher who inadvertently provided the catalyst for all this navel-gazing and selfobsession when she infamously pronounced that there is "no such thing as society. There are individual men and women and there are families. And no government can do anything except through people, and people must look after themselves first." Since then it's all been about "me me me"; not even 11 years of a Labour government have managed to halt our increasing narcissism or inject any sense of collectivism back into the national psyche.
Bookshop shelves groan with the weight of self-help manuals, designed to pander to and heal just about every psychic and emotional stress known to humankind, while misery lit (or misery porn as it's more accurately known) is fast outselling any other genre.
As writers scribe in unflinching detail their stories of brutalised childhoods, and of their survivals against all the odds, we lap up these tales of woe and clamour for more. Narratives that were meant to inspire and empower us with their messages of triumph over adversity serve instead as fodder for our most voyeuristic tendencies; it's starting to feel like there's an incredibly tasteless competition on to find the poor sod who has had the most miserable childhood in the history of the world, ever.
But as Libby Brooks observed recently in her excellent piece on the debate about rape: "Creating a hierarchy of victimhood helps no one." I couldn't agree more.
Even those with all the advantages aren't exempt from all this wallowing and internal reflection.
Born with a silver spoon in your mouth and sent to all the best schools? Don't worry, there's a support group out there for you somewhere. Think you've always been happy and never wanted for anything? Well think again. No one gets through life unscathed: you're probably in denial and need a good dose of therapy to find out whatever it is you're repressing.
What's really lacking in all of this introspection is any sense of the bigger picture. These personal histories stand alone, testament to the individualism that has permeated every aspect of 21stcentury life. Rather than examining and critiquing our social conditions, we're encouraged instead to look inwards, to heal ourselves and rid ourselves of any demons we may have picked up along the way. As a consequence of this we're failing to make those vital connections between our personal experiences and how our lives have been shaped by forces beyond our individual control.
But "the personal is political" was not just some trite feminist slogan dreamed up to help bored housewives make sense of their lot. As Carol Hanisch said in her essay of the same name: "personal problems are political problems. There are no personal solutions at this time. There is only collective action for a collective solution." Isn't it about time we started to embrace that kind of thinking again?
The discriminations and prejudices I've encountered in my life are not because I'm me, Cath Elliott: they're a direct result of the gender and social class I was born into. Counselling, self-help books or holistic therapies might make me better able to deal with what life has thrown or has yet to throw at me, but it won't do anything to change the external conditions that impact negatively on me and mine.
So, the choice is ours. We can either continue to wallow in our victimhood, fighting to outdo each other with our tales of oppression and woe, and attempting to heal our lives in splendid isolation, or we can learn once again to recognise our shared experiences and start to fight together for change. We're only victims if we choose to be so. Personally I reject the label: I'd advise everyone else to do the same.
Adapted from The Guardian

Fish and chips

Fish and chips
"Fish and chips" is deep‐fried fish in batter with deep‐fried potatoes, and a popular take‐away food.
Fish and chips is originally from the United Kingdom, but also very popular in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and some coastal towns of the Netherlands and Norway.
For decades it was the dominant (if not the only) take‐away food in the United Kingdom. The fried potatoes are called chips in British and international usage; and while American English calls them french fries, the combination is still called "fish and chips".
Fish and chips have separately been eaten for many years –though the potato was not introduced to Europe until the 17th century. The originally Sephardi dish Pescado frito came to Netherlands and Englan with the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in the 17th and 18th centuries. This fried fish became popular in London and the south‐east in the middle of the 19th century, while in the North of England an industry of deep‐fried "chipped" potatoes developed.
It is unclear when and where these two products came together to become the fish and chip shop industry we know today. The first combined fish and chip shop was probably the one opened in London by Joseph Malin in 1860. 
During World War II, fish and chips were one of the few foods that were not rationed in the UK.

James Cameron et son film « Avatar »

James Cameron et son film « Avatar »
Avatar, c’est le dernier film du réalisateur James Cameron et le plus cher de l’histoire du cinéma.
James Cameron est né au Canada mais il fait ses études à l’Université de Californie. Il a aimé toujours le cinéma mais il travaille au commencement comme mécanicien et conducteur de camions. Nous savons qu’il s’est marié cinq fois et qu’il a trois enfants. Avant de tourner Avatar, il a réalisé des films bien connus comme Terminator, Rambo II, Abyss ou Titanic. Films de grand succès.
Avatar sort en décembre 2009, mais James Cameron a travaillé dans le projet pendant quatorze ans.
Avatar c’est un film d’aventure et science fiction, mais le plus important c’est que le film est tourné en 3 dimensions, avec des effets spéciaux magnifiques, grâce aux technologies modernes.
On peut voir le film dans toutes les salles de cinéma du monde, mais il y en beaucoup qui ne sont pas encore équipés pour le voir en 3 dimensions.
Avec Titanic, qui a gagné 11 Oscars et le grand succès d’Avatar, James Cameron devient le réalisateur le plus rentable de l´histoire du cinéma devant Steven Spielberg.

Astrid Lindgren

Astrid Lindgren und Pippy Langstrumpf
Astrid Lindgren gehört zu den bekanntesten Kinderbuchautoren der Welt und würde dieses Jahr ihren 100. Geburtstag feiern. Die Abenteuer von Pippi Langstrumpf, Michel aus Lönneberga oder den Kindern aus Bullerbü sind nur ein kleiner Teil ihrer Geschichten, die sie erfunden hat. Am 14. November ist es genau 100 Jahre her, dass Astrid Lindgren geboren wurde. 

Gelebt wie die Kinder aus Bullerbü

Astrid Anna Emilia Ericsson kam auf dem Hof Näs in der Nähe des schwedischen Orts Vimmerby zur Welt und wuchs dort mit ihren drei Geschwistern Gunnar, Stina und Ingegerd auf. Sie hatte eine tolle Kindheit. Dadurch wurden auch die vielen Geschichten beeinflusst, die sie erfunden hat. Genauso wie die Kinder aus Bullerbü wohnte Astrid Lindgren auf dem Land, umgeben von grünen Wiesen und Tieren.

Astrid Lindgren hat sich ihr ganzes Leben sehr für den Umweltschutz eingesetzt. Zu ihrem 80. Geburtstag bekam sie von einem schwedischen Minister sogar ein "Tierschutzgesetz" geschenkt. Sie hatte erreicht, dass sich die Menschen besser um die Tiere und deren Haltung kümmern. Im Jahr 2002 ist Astrid Lindgren im Alter von 94 Jahren in Stockholm gestorben.

 

Große Feiern zum Geburtstag

Seit diesem Zeitpunkt verleiht die schwedische Regierung jedes Jahr den Astrid-Lindgren-Gedächtnis-Preis. Das ist die größte Auszeichnung für Kinder- und Jugendliteratur auf der ganzen Welt. Zum 100. Geburtstag wird in vielen Ländern das Astrid-Lindgren-Jahr gefeiert. Es werden in Buchhandlungen und im Radio Lesefeste und Radionächte veranstaltet und die schönsten Filme im Fernsehen gezeigt. In Deutschland gibt es sogar eine Sonderbriefmarke.

La basilica di San Zeno

La basilica di San Zeno
La basilica di San Zeno è senza dubbio una delle più belle chiese romaniche esistenti in Italia. L'intenso cromatismo, dato dall'impiego della pietra di tufo usata sola o alternata a mattoni, si imprime subito nella memoria del visitatore. L'origine del primitivo nucleo di San Zeno è da ricondurre alla chiesa e al cenobio eretti nell'area cimiteriale romana e paleocristiana vicina alla Via Gallica, sorti sul luogo di sepoltura del Vescovo Zeno per conservarne la memoria e le reliquie. Il primitivo nucleo subì nel VI secolo dei rifacimenti. Qualche storico vede nel sacello di San Benedetto, tuttora esistente nel chiostro, una parte del primitivo complesso.

Con l'espandersi del culto del Santo, l'edificio cominciò a rivelarsi insufficiente. E così fra l'805 e l'806 la comune volontà del re franco Pipino, del Vescovo Ratoldo e dell'Arcidiacono Pacifico, fece realizzare una chiesa più vasta con annesso monastero. Nel 963, a seguito della distruzione operata dagli Ungari, l'imperatore Ottone I e il Vescovo Raterio fecero ricostruire la basilica. Questa è la chiesa che nel 983 vide l'investitura imperiale e la consacrazione episcopale di San Adalberto che esercitò la sua azione pastorale nell' Europa nordorientale. Si tratta di una costruzione a tre navate e tre absidi, larga come l'attuale, ma meno lunga e provvista di cripta.
              
Testo adattato da Consorzio di Promozione e Commercializzazione Turistica - Verona e Dintorni - www..veronaitaly.it

The key to choosing the right career

The key to choosing the right career
When I graduated from college, I liked lots of things. But love? Passion? That would have been an exaggeration. Choosing a career path is usually a confusing and stressing experience. Many will tell you to "follow your passion" or "do what you love", but this doesn't seem very useful advice.
We all want to choose a career that will make us happy, but know can we know what that will be? In fairness, how are you supposed to know if you will be happy as an investment banker or artist or a professor, if you haven't actually done any of these things yet? Who has ever, in the history of mankind, taken a job and had it turn out exactly as they imagined it would?
So if passion and expected happines can't be your guides, what can be? Well, you can begin by choosing a career that fits well with your skills and values. Since you actually have some sense of what those are (hopefully), this is a good starting place. But a bit less obviously, you also want to choose an occupation that provides good motivation for you as well.
There are two ways you can be motivated to reach your goals. Some of us tend to see our goals as oppotunities for advancement, success and rewards. The rest of us see our goals a being about security - about not losing everything we've worked so hard for. So, if you are starting a new venture, make sure that you've got a healthy balance of promotion and prevention.

How China is winning the school race

Chinese students
China’s education performance—at least in cities such as Shanghai and Hong Kong—is as spectacular as the country’s rapid economic expansion, surpassing many more advanced countries. But what is behind this success?
Surprise came when the results of the OECD’s international maths, science and reading tests —the 2009 PISA tests—were published. Shanghai, taking part for the first time, came top in all three subjects. Meanwhile, Hong Kong, which did well in the last decade, has gone from good to great. In this global ranking, it came fourth in reading, second in maths and third in science. These two Chinese cities outstripped leading education systems around the world. The results for Beijing are not quite as spectacular. “But they are still high,” says Andreas Schleicher, the OECD’s head of education statistics.
Cheng Kai-Ming, Professor of Education at Hong Kong University, attributes the results to “a devotion to education not shared by other cultures.” More than 80 % of Shanghai’s older secondary students attend after-school tutoring. They may spend another three to four hours each day on homework under close parental supervision. Such dedication also reflects the ferociously competitive university entrance examinations. Prof. Cheng says Chinese parents are definitely devoted to their children’s education.
Certainly these two open and dynamic cities regard as valuable to adopt the best educational practices from around the world to ensure success. Under the slogan “First class city, first class education”, Shanghai re-equipped classrooms, upgraded schools and revised the curriculum in the last decade. Teachers were trained in more interactive methodology and computers were brought in. The city’s schools are now a model for the country. About 80 % of Shanghai school leavers go to university compared to an average of 24 % in China.
Last year Shanghai claimed to be the first Chinese city to provide free schooling for all migrant children. Shanghai controls who lives and works in the city, allowing only the best and the brightest students to become residents with access to jobs and schools. “For over 50 years Shanghai has been accumulating talent, the cream of the cream in China. That gives it an incredible advantage,” says Ruth Heyhoe, former head of the Chinese Institute of Education.
Meanwhile, Hong Kong was forced into educational improvements when its industries moved to cheaper Chinese areas in the 1990s. To continue being a service centre for China, the city had to upgrade knowledge and skills. In the last decade Hong Kong has concentrated on raising the level for all students, and today Hong Kong’s education system is rated among the best in the world. “If we want to have high achievement, we need experts in secondary schools,” said Catherine Chan, secretary for education in the Hong Kong government. Teachers are selected from the top 30 % of the university graduates. By contrast, according to the OECD, the US selects from the bottom third. In Hong Kong, over one-fifth of government money is spent on education every year.
Both Hong Kong and Shanghai are changing their educational models and no-one knows how this will result in terms of quality. However, they believe they are moving in the right direction. Their societies are changing rapidly and for both cities, reaching the top might be easier than staying there.
Text adapted from BBC News

A che serve il professore?

A che serve il professore?
Internet offre agli studenti molte più informazioni che la scuola. Ma poi c'è bisogno di qualcuno che li aiuti a cercare, filtrare e selezionare.
Nella valanga di articoli sul bullismo nelle scuole ho letto di un episodio che proprio di bullismo non definirei ma al massimo d'impertinenza - e tuttavia si tratta di una impertinenza significativa. Dunque, si diceva che uno studente, per provocare un professore, gli avrebbe chiesto: "Scusi, ma nell'epoca d'Internet, Lei che cosa ci sta a fare?".
Lo studente diceva una mezza verità, che tra l'altro persino i professori dicono da almeno vent'anni, e cioè che una volta la scuola doveva trasmettere certamente formazione ma anzitutto nozioni, dalle tabelline nelle elementari, alle notizie sulla capitale del Madagascar nelle medie, sino alla data della guerra dei trent'anni nel liceo. Con l'avvento, non dico di Internet, ma della televisione e persino della radio, e magari già con l'avvento del cinema, gran parte di queste nozioni venivano assorbite da ragazzi nel corso della vita extrascolastica.
Mio padre da piccolo non sapeva che Hiroshima fosse in Giappone, che esistesse Guadalcanal, aveva notizie imprecise di Dresda, e sapeva dell'India quello che gli raccontava Salgari. Io sin dai tempi della guerra queste cose le ho apprese dalla radio e dalle cartine sui quotidiani, mentre i miei figli hanno visto in televisione i fiordi norvegesi, il deserto di Gobi, come le api impollinano i fiori, com'era un Tyrannosaurus Rex; e infine un ragazzo d'oggi sa tutto sull'ozono, sui koala, sull'Iraq e sull'Afghanistan. Forse un ragazzo d'oggi non sa dire bene che cosa siano le staminali ma le ha sentite nominare, mentre ai miei tempi non ce lo diceva neppure la professoressa di scienze naturali. E allora che ci stanno a fare gli insegnanti?
Ho detto che quella dello studente di cui parlavo era solo una mezza verità, perché anzitutto l'insegnante oltre che informare deve formare. Quello che fa di una classe una buona classe non è che vi si apprendano date e dati ma che si stabilisca un dialogo continuo, un confronto di opinioni, una discussione su quanto si apprende a scuola e quanto avviene di fuori. Certo, che cosa accada in Iraq ce lo dice la televisione, ma perché qualcosa accada sempre lì, sin dai tempi della civiltà mesopotamica, e non in Groenlandia, lo può dire solo la scuola. E se qualcuno obiettasse che talora ce lo dicono persone anche autorevoli a 'Porta a Porta', è la scuola che deve discutere 'Porta a Porta'. I mass media ci dicono tante e cose e ci trasmettono persino dei valori, ma la scuola dovrebbe saper discutere il modo in cui ce lo trasmettono, e valutare il tono e la forza delle argomentazioni che vengono svolte sulla carta stampata e in televisione. E poi c'è la verifica delle informazioni trasmesse dai media: per esempio, chi se non un insegnante può correggere le pronunce sbagliate di quell'inglese che ciascuno crede di imparare dalla televisione?
Ma lo studente non stava dicendo al professore che non aveva bisogno di lui perché erano ormai radio e televisione a dirgli dove stia Timbuctu o che si è discusso sulla fusione fredda, e cioè non gli stava dicendo che il suo ruolo era stato assunto da discorsi per così dire sciolti, che circolano in modo casuale e disordinato giorno per giorno sui vari media - e che se sappiamo molto sull'Iraq e poco sulla Siria dipende dalla buona o cattiva volontà di Bush. Lo studente stava dicendo che oggi esiste Internet, la Gran Madre di tutte le Enciclopedie, dove si trovano la Siria, la fusione fredda, la guerra dei trent'anni e la discussione infinita sul più alto dei numeri dispari. Gli stava dicendo che le informazioni che Internet gli mette a disposizione sono immensamente più ampie e spesso più approfondite di quelle di cui dispone il professore. E trascurava un punto importante: che Internet gli dice 'quasi tutto', salvo come cercare, filtrare, selezionare, accettare o rifiutare quelle informazioni.
A immagazzinare nuove informazioni, purché si abbia buona memoria, sono capaci tutti. Ma decidere quali vadano ricordate e quali no è arte sottile. Questo fa la differenza tra chi ha fatto un corso di studi regolari (anche male) e un autodidatta (anche se geniale).
Umberto Eco - La Bustina di Minerva

The Playmobil theme park that's a different kind of adventure

The Playmobil theme park that's a different kind of adventure
Yes, the rumours are true. Playmobil which makes ambulances, dragons, princesses and pirates for millions of children, is going to bring its theme park to Britain. The German toy company has announced that it is “a matter of when, not if”. For many parents going to theme parks, with their queues, expensive burgers and alarming rides, is awful. However this is not an ordinary theme park.
In fact, it is not a theme park at all as it does not have any traditional theme park rides. Hans Beck, the original designer of Playmobil believed that children’s greatest gift was their imagination. The moment a little plastic figure, with arms and legs, was in their hands, they would make up stories. Playmobil is what all toys were before video games, television or the cinema; a way for children to enter a world entirely of their own making.
Playmobil theme parks are the Playmobil universe but in human size. There is a pirates’ ship on a lake, whose rigging can be climbed, a knights’ castle, from whose walls children can shout and scale, located next door to the cowboy area, with Playmobil horses and wagons which can be ridden.
Herr Beck’s legacy was his strong belief that his toys must not encourage violence or horror. Horst Brandstatter, who owns the company has always refused to make Playmobil tanks or warplanes although he knows it would be a lucrative option.
Horst Brandstatter says, “I hope that there is enough fantasy in the Playmobil world that children can make up and play out their own story. That’s what we want. I hope we can perpetuate that.” .
Adapted from The Daily Telegraph 2011.

Alexander von Humboldt – Der Vermesser der Welt

Alexander von Humboldt – Der Vermesser der WeltAlexander von Humboldt war ein Universalgenie. Sein Denken war grenzenlos. Aber er war auch Lebemann, der die Geselligkeit in den Salons liebte. Sein Bruder Wilhelm warf ihm einmal vor, zu sehr pariserisch zu werden.
Alexander von Humboldt konnte so ziemlich alles. Er war kein Spezialist, sondern in den meisten naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen zu Hause. Er genießt, wie sein zwei Jahre älterer Bruder Wilhelm, eine hervorragende Ausbildung. Dafür investiert seine Mutter sehr viel Geld. Die besten Hauslehrer werden engagiert, alle folgen dem aufklärerischen Gedanken dieser Zeit. Der Mensch soll sein Leben und Denken selbst bestimmen und sich nicht an Zwängen der Obrigkeit orientie-ren. So wächst Alexander auf. Saugt alles, was ihn interessiert, wie ein Schwamm auf. Studiert Staatswirtschaftslehre, Altertumswissenschaften und Medizin, Physik, Mathematik, Botanik.
Vermessung der Erde Alexander von Humboldt interessiert als Naturforscher weniger das Detail als vielmehr die Frage, wie das Ganze, das gesamte Ökosystem Erde funktioniert. Doch dafür muss er die Details kennen und verstehen. Die Bedeutung der Astronomie, der Geologie, Mineralogie, Klima-forschung oder der Ozeanographie. Dass er dafür nicht in Berlin bleiben kann, weiß Humboldt schon recht früh. Er knüpft Kontakte zu Wissenschaftlern, die die Welt bereisen. Georg Forster ist einer von ihnen. Mit ihm unternimmt Humboldt seine erste Expedition. Von Mainz geht es über den Niederrhein nach England. Und diese kleinere Forschungsreise weckt in ihm den großen Wunsch, die Welt zu erobern, sagt der Humboldt-Biograph Manfred Geier. „Das Schlüssel-erlebnis findet statt, als er mit Georg Forster, dem Weltreisenden das Meer sieht. Und dieses Meer lockt ihn in die Ferne.”
Raus in die Welt Als seine Mutter 1796 stirbt – Alexander ist 27 Jahre alt – erbt er ein großes Vermögen. Damit kann er sich den Traum, die Welt zu bereisen, endlich erfüllen. Er quittiert sofort den Staatsdienst und bereitet sich drei Jahre lang auf seine große Forschungsreise nach Amerika vor. Sein Begleiter ist der Botaniker Aimé Bonpland. 1799 starten sie ihre „Vermessung der Welt”. Mit an Bord die modernsten Instrumente, die es zu dieser Zeit gibt: unter anderem Sextanten, Teles-kope, diverse Fernrohre, eine Längenuhr, ein Hyetometer, Elektrometer, Hygrometer, Barometer und verschiedene Thermometer.
In einem Brief schreibt er: „Ich werde Pflanzen sammeln, mit vortrefflichen Instrumenten astrono-mische Beobachtungen machen können (...). Das alles ist aber nicht Hauptzweck meiner Reise. Auf das Zusammenwirken der Kräfte, den Einfluss der unbelebten Schöpfung auf die belebte Tier- und Pflanzenwelt, auf diese Harmonie sollen stets meine Augen gerichtet sein!”
Expedition Amerika Von Spanien aus geht es über die Kanarischen Inseln nach Kolumbien, Ecuador, Mexiko, Kuba, Venezuela und Peru. Er durchwandert die Anden, Monate lang, tausende von Kilometern. Ein Höhepunkt, sagt Manfred Geier, sei der 20. Juni 1802 gewesen, als er den Vulkan Chimborazo besteigt, der damals als der höchste Berg der Welt galt. „Er war zusammen mit seinen Begleitern fast oben. Es kam ihm schon das Blut aus den Augen, er war über 6000 Meter hoch, bevor er an eine Spalte kam, 70 Meter breit und 170 Meter tief, über die sie nicht hinweggekommen sind.” Alexander von Humboldt und sein Begleiter Bonpland geraten mehrere Male in Lebensgefahr. Doch eine von Humboldts Maximen lautet: „Selbst erleben, selbst erleiden”. Dazu gehören auch die ein oder anderen skurrilen wissenschaftlichen Selbstversuche. Für seine „Versuche über die gereizte Muskel- und Nervenfaser” fügt er sich Wunden zu und bringt sie mit allerlei giftigem Zeug, wie Zink oder Silber in Berührung.
Humboldt wird zum Wissenschafts-Star Am 3. August 1804 betreten Humboldt und Bonplan wieder europäischen Boden. Sie landen in Frankreich und werden frenetisch gefeiert. Humboldt entscheidet sich, erst einmal in Paris zu bleiben, das preußische Berlin lockt ihn nicht. Sein Bruder Wilhelm ermahnt ihn schließlich, wieder nach Deutschland zurückzukehren. Das tut Alexander - wohl auch, weil das Geld knapp wird. Das preußische Königshaus bietet ihm die zu nichts verpflichtende aber gut bezahlte Stelle des königlichen Kammerherrn an, zum außerordentlichen Mitglied der Akademie der Wissen-schaften wurde er bereits während seiner Amerika-Reise ernannt. Auch in Berlin ist Alexander von Humboldt bis zu seinem Tod ein Star der Gesellschaft. Er wird gefeiert und verehrt wie ein Popstar. Humboldt verbringt den Rest seines Lebens damit, die unzähligen Pflanzen, Tiere, Fossilien, Steine und die Berge von Daten und Aufzeichnungen auszuwerten, die er aus Amerika mitgebracht hat. Sein berühmtes, mehrbändiges Werk „Der Kosmos” wurde schon kurz nach Erscheinen zum Bestseller. Alexander von Humboldt stirbt 90-jährig am 6. Mai 1859 in Berlin.
© DW 

Mobile phones in cinemas

Mobile phones in cinemas
Increasingly New Yorkers are placing and receiving calls when they go to the movies. But now if a new law does become effective in December, the very act of talking into a mobile phone in a cinema or any other place of public performance could become illegal and result in a 50-euro fine. The proposed law has strong support from cinemagoers.
“It is annoying when people in a movie theatre use their mobiles. You end up missing parts of the
film,” said one New Yorker. The use of mobile phone in live theatres and concert halls would also be included in the prohibition. Many people in the show business support the proposed law. The problem is that the ban will be difficult to apply because it will be hard to catch transgressors.

Familien

Urgroßmutter Emma heiratete schon mit 17 Jahren, bekam mit 18 ihr erstes Kind und hatte mit 32 schon sieben Kinder. „Haushalt und Kinder, das war ganz allein meine Aufgabe. Mein Mann hat sich darum nie gekümmert. Aber trotzdem war er der Herr im Haus“, sagt sie.
„Mein Vater war sehr streng, wir Kinder haben ihn mehr gefürchtet als geliebt“, sagt ihre Tochter Magdalene. Auch sie heiratete ziemlich früh und hatte fünf Kinder.
Elisabeth ist ihr zweites Kind: „Ich habe nur gute Erinnerungen an meine Kindheit. Meine Eltern waren zwar oft streng, aber es gab nie Schläge oder Ohrfeigen.“ Sie machte das Abitur und wurde Fremdsprachensekretärin. Heute, zwei Jahre nach der Scheidung von ihrem Mann, arbeitet sie wieder. Aber es ist nicht leicht für sie, allein und unabhängig zu leben. Ihre Tochter Sabine kann das nur schwer verstehen. Sie hat einen Sohn, Kevin. „Kevins Vater und ich leben zusammen, aber wir wollen nicht heiraten. Ich verdiene mein eigenes Geld und wir teilen uns die Arbeit im Haushalt.
Wir sind auch eine Familie, aber eben etwas anders als früher!“ Und Kevin? Er findet es gut, dass er so viele Omas hat!
Sabines Freundin Corinna hat eine sehr originelle Familie. Corinna dachte, dass eine Scheidung nicht das Ende ihrer Familie sein durfte. Jetzt lebt sie mit ihrer Großfamilie, und das ist eine ganz besondere Familie: zu ihr gehören ihre beiden Ex-Männer und die neue Freundin von Corinnas erstem Mann, die Kinder von Corinnas zwei ersten Ehen sowie auch ihr dritter Mann und die zwei Kinder, die sie mit ihm hat. „Warum soll ich den Kindern die Väter nehmen, die ich doch mal geliebt habe?“ fragt die dreißigjährige Schauspielerin Corinna. Wenn sie zum Filmen muss, kümmern sich die Väter um die Kinder.
Aber es gibt auch viele Menschen, die auf eine Familie verzichten. Die Zahlen zeigen, dass immer mehr Menschen allein leben. Im Jahre 1900 waren es sieben Prozent, heute sind es fünfmal so viele. Das sind zum größten Teil alte Menschen und Singles. Aber auch viele berufstätigen jungen Menschen wollen nicht mehr als Kinder bei den Eltern wohnen.

Die Stadt Freiburg und die Straßenmusik

Ist die Stadt Freiburg das Mekka der Straβenmusikanten? Im Frühling sah es so aus. Aber jetzt im Winter ist die Situation etwas ruhiger.
Im Frühling sah man an allen Ecken und Enden der Stadt Musikanten: Späthippies, 12-Mann-Big-Bands aus dem peruanischen Hochgebirge und klassisch ausgebildete Konservatoriumsstudenten teilten sich die Straβen und Gassen der Altstadt.
Das Brot der Straβenmusikanten ist meistens hart verdient. Während des Nachmittags und Abends singt ein Trio aus Ecuador nacheinander in allen Cafés der Fußgängerzone. Sie fangen auf dem Münsterplatz an und singen dann in allen anderen Cafés. Die drei Musiker aus Ecuador sind drei Brüder, sie waren in Amsterdam und sind dann über Deutschland in die Schweiz gefahren. Jetzt sind sie wieder in Deutschland, in Freiburg, und hoffen, andere Ecuatorianer zu treffen und eine grössere Band machen zu können. Mit dieser Band möchten sie weiterreisen.
Das verdiente Geld reicht gerade aus, um zu leben, sagen sie. Aber nicht mehr.
Doch nicht alle Musikanten kommen von so weit her: ein junger Mann aus Bern spielt Violine am Bahnhof. Er sagt, dass er versucht hat, in der Fuβgängerzone zu spielen, es aber nicht funktioniert hat. Warum? Sein Instrument ist zu leise: eine Violine hört man nicht, wenn viele Menschen herumlaufen und wenn auch andere Musiker spielen. Er hat nur wenige Münzen bekommen, deshalb versucht er es jetzt am Bahnhof, wo auch viele Menschen aber keine anderen Musiker sind. „Ich glaube, es ist das erste und letzte Mal, dass ich das probiere“, sagt er ein wenig frustriert.
Die Freiburger finden, dass es zu viele Straβenmusikanten gibt. Deshalb hat die Stadt jetzt die Straβenmusik streng reglementiert.
Wie ist die Straβenmusik reglementiert?
Musik und auch alle anderen künstlerischen Aktivitäten auf der Straβe müssen von der Polizei autorisiert werden, die Autorisierung kostet nichts.
Die Musiker dürfen unter der Woche von 11 bis 12.30 und von 16.30 bis 21 Uhr auf den Straβen spielen, am Samstag von 9 bis 21 Uhr und am Sonntag von 11 bis 20 Uhr. Straβenmusik ist nur in der
Fuβgängerzone erlaubt, und die Fuβgängerzone ist in vier Sektoren aufgeteilt. Die Künstler dürfen nicht länger als eine halbe Stunde in einer Zone sein, dann müssen sie in eine andere Zone gehen.
Am selben Tag darf in einer Zone nur einmal musiziert werden. Lautsprecher sind verboten und die Füβgänger dürfen nicht behindert werden. Straβenmusiker haben wirklich ein hartes Leben.
  • sich (die Straßen) teilen: repartir-se (els carrers) / repartirse (las calles)
  • verdienen: guanyar / ganar
  • e Fußgängerzone: zona de vianants / zona peatonal
  • gerade ausreichen: arribar just / alcanzar apenas


Verständnis des Textes

Beantworten Sie folgende Fragen. Es sind Fragen zum Verständnis des Textes, man muss ihn aufmerksam lesen. Kreuzen Sie die richtige Antwort an. Es gibt nur EINE korrekte Antwort.

1. Viele Straβenmusikanten gab es in Freiburg
■ schon immer.
vor allem von März bis Mai.
■ im Winter.
■ noch nie.
2. Die Musiker, die in Freiburg spielen,
kommen aus der ganzen Welt.
■ sind vor allem Musikstudenten.
■ sind vor allem aus der Umgebung.
■ sind sehr schlecht.
3. Die Freiburger Bevölkerung
■ mag die Straβenmusikanten, denn sie bringen Leben in die Stadt.
■ gibt den Straβenmusikanten für ihre Musik viel Geld.
findet, dass es im Frühling zu viele Musikanten in Freiburg gab und hat Straβenmusik reglementiert.
■ mag Konzerte von Big-Bands auf der Straβe.
4. Die Straβenmusikanten dürfen pro Tag
■ maximal sechs Stunden spielen.
■ so lange spielen, wie sie wollen.
■ immer nur mittags spielen.
nur eine halbe Stunde auf demselben Sektor spielen.
5. Die Straβenmusikanten dürfen
■ überall spielen, wo sie wollen.
■ nur vor Geschäften spielen, nicht wo Menschen wohnen.
nur an bestimmten Plätzen spielen.
■ nicht in der Fuβgängerzone spielen.
6. Ist es leicht, als Straβenmusiker viel Geld zu verdienen?
Nein, das hart verdiente Geld reicht gerade zum Leben aus.
■ Ja, das Geld reicht sehr gut zum Leben aus.
■ Nein, aber man kann sehr viel Geld verdienen.
■ Ja, die Leute geben gern Geld für gute Musik aus aller Welt.
7. Die Musikanten aus Ecuador sind sehr viel gereist.
■ Nein, sie sind direkt nach Deutschland gekommen.
■ Nein, sie sind nur nach Freiburg gekommen.
Ja, sie waren schon in Holland und in der Schweiz.
■ Ja, aber sie reisen nicht gern und wollen zurück nach Ecuador.
8. Spielt der Musiker aus Bern sehr laut?
■ Ja, deshalb spielt er am Bahnhof.
Nein, denn die Violine ist ein leises Instrument.
■ Nein, denn er kann nicht gut spielen.
■ Ja, denn er spielt Jazz.

+EXÁMENES RESUELTOS

Le consul, la France et Salem

passeport
Salem ne pouvait pas croire qu’on lui dise une chose pareille: «Salem Berlgourch, ce n’est pas un nom très français! Pour les Américains, la France, c’est Édith Piaf, le camembert, la tour Eiffel… Je ne sais pas si vous allez convenir». Le consul de France à Seattle, venu recruter des candidats pour un stage parmi les élèves en troisième année à Sciences politiques*, s’interrogeait tout haut. «Monsieur, la France, ce n’est pas un nom, ce sont des valeurs, l’appartenance à une identité collective, à la même République. Et je suis né ici!», lui a répondu le jeune homme, piqué au vif* et persuadé d’être refusé à l’examen. Trois semaines plus tard, le verdict tombait: Salem avait son passeport pour les États-Unis. Le consul avait seulement voulu le tester.
Salem Belgourch, 22 ans, maintenant en quatrième année en master de finances à Sciences politiques, raconte cette anecdote comme le reste  sans émotion particulière, se contentant de décrire les faits. Né dans une famille marocaine arrivée en France dans les années 1960 et qui a habité un bidonville* à Nanterre*, Salem est le dernier de dix enfants. Au collège, ses résultats sont «catastrophiques». Mais des profs exigeants, rencontrés quand il a dû recommencer sa troisième*, lui donnent l’envie d’étudier. En seconde*, au lycée Guy-de-Maupassant de Colombes*, il assiste à une réunion d’information.
Une chance : «Je pensais que Sciences politiques*, ce n’était pas fait pour nous. Mais mes frères et soeurs m’ont encouragé. Je ne perdais rien à essayer». Il avait même tout à gagner: en septembre 2004, après avoir passé un examen, il entre dans la prestigieuse école de la rue Saint-Guillaume. «Les débuts ont été terribles. La charge de travail, tout d’abord. Et puis, je ne me sentais pas du tout à ma place: passer de Colombes* au VIIe arrondissement, c’est un décalage énorme! Je me sentais très différent des autres: on ne parlait pas de la même façon, on ne s’habillait pas de la même manière. Les différences sociales étaient énormes. Et puis, j’ai appris, j’ai montré mes capacités et j’en suis sorti grandi .»
Cet été, Salem effectue un stage à la banque HSBC. Il vit toujours chez ses parents, à Colombes*, où il entraîne une équipe de football junior. Depuis mars dernier, il est également conseiller municipal: «Je veux garder un lien concret avec mon quartier. Je ne vais pas attendre d’avoir 40 ans pour tenter d’apporter mes réponses». À 23 ans, il sortira diplômé de Sciences politiques*, et compte alors s’inscrire à la Faculté de Droit de la rue d’Assas, une autre institution réputée élitiste. «Mais, cette fois, je n’aurai plus rien à prouver aux autres…»
D’après L’Express (31 juillet 2008)

The naughty boy of Europe

The naughty boy of EuropeIf generalizations were not so dangerous, we could say that there is something delinquent about British youth. According to statistics, British teenagers are worse behaved than others in Europe. They take drugs more often than others and only Danish teenagers drink as much alcohol. More teenage girls in Britain are more likely to get pregnant than any others in Western Europe. And so on. Some people think that teenagers in Britain have been a problem for a long time. But the truth is that it was not always like that. In the past decade, school exclusions among teenagers have rocketed1. The proportion of 14-17-year-old boys breaking the law rose by 14% between 1993 and 1999; girls are increasingly participating in violent crime. And the suicide rate among British males aged 15-24 has doubled over 30 years.
Some of these problems can be solved by simply thinking about them in a more rational way. Under-age drinking and cannabis smoking, for instance, are generally harmless, even if they are illegal. Teenage pregnancy statistics are not really so alarming: more British teenagers got pregnant 30 years ago. The only difference is that then they tended to be (or get) married, so they were not a burden2 to the taxpayer. The problem that is definitely expensive is delinquency because it tends to anticipate similar problems in later life.
Some people say there are two major causes that explain all these problems among teenagers. One explanation is economic and the other is familial. The decline of British industry has meant that poorly educated men, in particular, have fewer job opportunities. So more children grow up in families where parents are unemployed. The weakness of this explanation is that many of the problems in teenagers affect the entire social scale, not just the poorer families. The other explanation emphasizes the growth of divorce and the long hours that British parents are at work away from home.
Because familial instability and poverty often accompany each other, it is difficult to say which one has a greater influence on teenagers’ behaviour. But one way in which the government can make a difference is to keep more children in school: fewer children continue studying after the age of 16 than in most comparable countries, and more teenagers leave school before they finish secondary education than in most other EU countries.
There is, however, a less pessimistic explanation of these problems among teenagers. Even if it is true that a minority of young people are getting too little education, most of them are getting more education than their parents did. This prolongation of education may be causing an unwanted side effect3 because teenagers get their first job later in life. This means that adolescence persists longer and the assumption of adult responsibilities takes place later in life than it previously did. During this prolonged adolescence, British teenagers tend to get less support from their families than adolescents in other countries and this may be the real cause of most of their problems. Britain’s unruly4 teenagers are probably the price of progress.
(From the press. Adapted)

Hope for the no-hopers

Brazilian street children
«Is it true that in your country parents can be jailed for beating their children?», 16-year-old Jose asks us. Clearly there is no need to ask what made him run away from home to become one of Brazil’s «street children». Luckily for him, he lives in Porto Alegre, whose municipal council cares for them. Jose now sleeps in a council-run dormitory and spends most days in the city’s Open School, which allows street children to come and go as they please, trying to bring them back to a normal life and perhaps to an education.
It is a dark winter day when we visit the Open School. While the youngest ones play board games, the older ones kick a football around, tend the centre’s vegetable garden or learn the beginnings of skills that may make them employable one day. 13-year old Ismael recounts happily how he and his friends used to sleep behind a shopping centre, and laughs as he tells of the beatings they got from policemen who caught them sniffing glue.
Nearly all the Open School’s users still abuse some substance, often glue or a mixture of shop-lifted1 solvents2 and medication, a habit picked up on the streets to fight off hunger, cold and fear. These, the drug sniffers, are the easy ones to rescue, says one of the teachers: there are still groups of youngsters who are drug injectors but reject offers of help.
The clamour within Brazil over the situation had been growing since its return to democracy in the mid 1980s. Then, in July 1993, the whole world learnt about it, when eight children sleeping in a square in the centre of Rio were massacred by off-duty3 policemen.
Suddenly the world read of the packs of children living in the street, hunted down like rats by exterminators hired by angry shopkeepers. A recent independent study, however, discovered in Sao Paulo city, with its 10 million people, only 609 cases of really wild children.
Why are they there? Stela, from Sao Paulo’s University, says Brazil’s cities have had many street-dwellers since the big migrations from the countryside in the 1930s. But now a more modern factor is driving children on to the street: the fragmentation of families, especially the very poor.
Though family breakdown may be hard or impossible to prevent, something can be done to help its victims. The services Porto Alegre offers are modest: a shelter where the children can sleep, eat and wash; a day centre staffed with a few teachers, drug counsellors and so on; and some staff to patrol the streets at night looking for children in need. So why do other cities not do likewise?
A simple lack of public spending on public services, say some critics. However, it is often not money that is lacking but political will, competence, coordination and continuity. In Sao Paulo, for example, much of the city hall’s income in recent years has been skimmed off by corruption. But even the existing projects for the homeless are poorly coordinated and therefore inefficient. So people sleeping in one street may get fed twice in one night, while those in another street are entirely forgotten.
(From the press. Adapted)

Addio sacchetto di plastica, arriva quello bio

Addio sacchetto di plastica, arriva quello bio

Le buste per la spesa saranno biodegradabili

Da riutilizzare per la raccolta differenziata

Dal primo gennaio, stop ai sacchetti di plastica. Il ministro dell’Ambiente Stefania Prestigiacomo si è impuntata e alla fine ha vinto la sua battaglia contro chi chiedeva un ennesimo rinvio della legge. Così anche l’Italia si è adeguata alla direttiva dell’Unione Europea che vieta la produzione e la commercializzazione di sacchetti di plastica non biodegradabili.
Un anno di tempo. Il primo gennaio è entrato in vigore il divieto di produzione dei sacchetti di plastica, ma chi ha scorte in magazzino potrà venderle ancora fino al 30 aprile. Entro il 31 agosto gli shopper di plastica dovranno sparire dai magazzini della grande distribuzione, mentre chi vende al dettaglio e i negozi di vicinato avranno tempo fino al 31 dicembre per adeguarsi.
Una scelta irrinunciabile per l’ambiente: basti pensare che, secondo Legambiente, in Italia ogni anno si consumano più di 20 miliardi di sacchetti di plastica. Un quantitativo che potrebbe ricoprire un territorio pari a quello della Valle d’Aosta.
Con il loro utilizzo, poi, ogni famiglia media italiana produce ogni anno più di 10 chili di CO2 (anidride carbonica), responsabile dell’effetto serra e dei cambiamenti climatici. E non bisogna dimenticare che queste buste impiegano fino a 200 anni per decomporsi: tant’è che nell’oceano Pacifico, al largo delle coste californiane, vaga ormai da anni una specie di «isola di plastica» grande due volte la superficie del Texas.
Come sostituirli. I commercianti proporranno sacchetti in carta o in plastica biodegradabile, che potranno essere usati anche per la raccolta differenziata della frazione organica dei rifiuti.
Ma le vere alternative ecologiche sono il loro riutilizzo e l’abitudine a portare con sé un contenitore di tela o di fibra sintetica. Oppure scegliere cesti in vimini, molto usati per esempio in Germania. Sempre secondo Legambiente, anche il sacchetto di plastica potrebbe essere una buona scelta dal punto di vista ambientale, purché lo si riutilizzi: dal ventesimo utilizzo in poi, l’impatto ambientale è inferiore a quello del sacchetto di carta.
La sfida per l’anno appena incominciato è quella dunque di sensibilizzare i consumatori.
Con questo obbiettivo, molte associazioni di commercianti si sono alleate con i Comuni.
L’Associazione Comuni Virtuosi ha lanciato la campagna «Porta la Sporta», cui ha aderito per esempio il comune di Firenze in collaborazione con Confesercenti. Saranno distribuiti sacchetti con il marchio della campagna, riutilizzabili e personalizzabili dai commercianti che ne faranno richiesta.
Daniela FABBRI. Oggi (1 gennaio 2011), p. 110-111

Onorevole, si connetta

Wifi libero
Dura ormai da 1.888 giorni una delle più incredibili anomalie italiane in materia di politica dell’innovazione. Un’anomalia che ha contribuito in modo determinante ad abbandonare il nostro Paese sul fondo di ogni classifica internazionale sulla diffusione di Internet.
Si tratta del cosiddetto «decreto Pisanu» (tecnicamente: decreto legge n. 144 del 27 luglio 2005), dal nome dell’allora ministro degli Interni che, all’indomani degli attentati di Al Qaeda a Londra e Madrid, preoccupato che un terrorista potesse sedersi in un bar, aprire il suo pc e, sfruttando la connessione WiFi che il gestore del bar gli ha messo a disposizione, progettasse un attentato, decise d’imporre a tutti gli esercizi pubblici di richiedere una licenza speciale al questore per l’istallazione di un punto di connessione WiFi, procedendo anche all’identificazione — con esibizione del documento d’identità — di ogni cliente, nonché alla registrazione e conservazione dei dati relativi alle attività di navigazione della clientela.
Appena quattro giorni dopo il decreto venne ratificato dal Parlamento e da allora è legge dello Stato (n. 155 del 31 luglio del 2005). E, sebbene abbia prodotto nel nostro Paese più danni che vantaggi, le disposizioni ottenute al suo articolo 7, originariamente destinate a rimanere efficaci sino al 31 dicembre 2007, sono state prorogate di anno in anno, attraverso una sequenza di tre «Milleproroghe», ovvero il perverso strumento normativo attraverso il quale, prima che l’anno finisca, il governo rinnova tutti i provvedimenti di legge dei quali non ha avuto tempo o voglia di occuparsi.
Nessuno in Parlamento si è mai interrogato circa la reale utilità — in termini di antiterrorismo — di imporre al gestore di un bar di identificare il suo cliente al quale «presta» un po’ di banda. Mai il ministero degli Interni o altri hanno riferito se, come e quando questa legge ha prevenuto un atto terroristico dal 2005 a oggi. In compenso è certo — e provato da diverse ricerche — che la norma (inesistente, ad esempio, negli Usa) ha tarpato le ali allo sviluppo della Rete senza fili in Italia.
Che cosa fare, dunque, per liberarci dal decreto Pisanu? Innanzitutto scongiurare il rischio che con il prossimo Milleproroghe, i cui lavori preparatori stanno per iniziare, il governo non confermi per la quarta volta l’obbligo per i gestori di richiedere una licenza al questore per l’installazione di un hot spot WiFi; e poi, esigere che l’esecutivo — in una sorte di tardivo pentimento operoso — utilizzi lo stesso decreto legge Milleproroghe per abrogare le disposizioni che impongono al gestore di un bar di trasformarsi in sheriff e identificare, con tanto di documento d’identità, i propri avventori.
C’è bisogno di rilanciare la diffusione Internet nel nostro Paese per colmare il ritardo rispetto al resto d’Europa. E questa appare, davvero, una ragione di straordinaria necessità ed urgenza: davvero, quindi, sarebbe giustificato il ricorso al decreto legge.
Testo adattato da Guido SCORZA. L’Espresso (8 ottobre 2010), p. 157

China's animal rights

Please don't send us to China: dog
China can be an unforgiving country for dogs: attitudes towards pets have become more progressive over the past decade – a product of growing wealth and exposure to foreign ideas – but large canines are banned in many cities; pet markets are poorly regulated, and puppies frequently die soon after being purchased. In parts of the country, dogmeat makes a popular wintertime dish; animals kept as pets are frequently stolen and sold as meat.
"Pet ownership has risen dramatically, it's just gone through the roof," said Paul Littlefair, an expert on China's animal rights. But animal protection remains a grey area, he said. Thanks to China's mass urbanisation, strict family planning laws and changing social norms, an increasing number of Chinese people live alone, and many of them keep dogs as company. "People spend a ridiculous amount of money on their dogs – they love their dogs like they're family members," said filmmaker Wu Ming, who is making a documentary about dog ownership in China. Wu said she became aware of China's often contradictory attitude towards dogs after her roommate bought a labrador retriever. "There were a lot of shocking reactions to the dog – if we got into an elevator with someone they'd start screaming and trying to climb the walls," she said. Since the 2008 Olympics, dogs over 35cm tall have been banned within Beijing's fourth ring road. During the daytime, pensioners take their pekinese and poodles on strolls through Beijing's residential areas. Golden retrievers, labradors and huskies only appear late at night, when the city's police presence dwindles. Earlier this year, protests broke out in the northern city of Harbin after municipal officials announced a new ordinance prohibiting "dangerous" breeds – including golden and labrador retrievers – forcing many of the city's dog owners to either move away or quickly relinquish their pets.

The truth about families and alcohol

The truth about families and alcohol
Too many middle-class parents are drinking excessively as a way of coping with the demands of family life, a report suggests. The study, carried out by charity 4Children, warns of a "silent epidemic" of alcohol misuse in British families. The study claims parenting capacity can be hampered by habitual drinking. The report, “Over the Limit: The Truth about Families and Alcohol”, suggested about a third of mothers and fathers drink more than their recommended units a week, but just under two-thirds (62%) of the British parents questioned as part of the report said that their drinking behaviour had no impact on their family life, and one in five (19%) believed their alcohol consumption had a positive effect on their ability to parent.
The report said the households most likely to drink were the wealthiest - with almost four times as many families in the top earning groups drinking every day compared to the poorest. The arrival of children seems to have led more parents to drink more, with one in six increasing consumption after the birth of a baby. "Although we suppose the majority of these parents will not be collapsing drunk on the streets, we found the impact on children can still be significant," the report said and added: "Parenting capacity can be adversely affected, and quality interactions with the youngest children disrupted, by parents who merely drink socially.
The unpredictability of the behaviour of an intoxicated parent seems to have a significant effect on children's development.” 4Children chief executive Anne Longfield called for a rethink on Britain's relationship with alcohol. She said: "What to many parents feels like low level consumption still has the ability to negatively impact on their parenting. Drinking can seriously distort people‟s judgement and the way they engage with their children. Even simple factors, such as the increased likelihood for accidents, are something that parents need to be aware of. “
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