The discovery of mummies with very simple decorative tattoos has proved the existence of tattooing since prehistoric times. Scientists have not been able to explain the symbolism of these designs made up of lines and dots, but it is thought they were part of a medical healing process.
However, for nearly as long as there has been tattooing, there has been condemnation. The Romans used tattoos to mark slaves and criminals and the Japanese also considered them punishment. If you were a convicted criminal, you would get a mark on your forehead, convicted twice get another, and if you were convicted a third time, you would receive a third and final mark making the Japanese symbol for “dog”.
In some other societies, tattoos gained respect and assured the owners status for life. The Polynesians developed them to mark rank, and there is evidence that the Incas tattooed their warriors to remind them and others of their success and bravery in battle.
In the late 1700s, Captain Cook and his men reintroduced tattooing in Europe. Returning from one of his trips, he brought a heavily tattooed Polynesian man who was a sensation among London upper-class. They were so fascinated that they began adorning themselves with body marks in discreet places and, for a short time, tattooing became a trend.
After World War II, tattoos had a terrible reputation because newspapers reported stories of blood poisoning and other diseases and the people who wore them were associated with delinquents. Today they are becoming so popular that it is getting harder and harder to find individuals without a tattoo. This rise in popularity has placed tattooists in the category of “fine artists”.
I * READING COMPREHENSION
CHOOSE AND WRITE THE CORRECT OPTION (A, B, C or D).
- (a) has always been fashionable.
- (b) is no longer related to delinquency.
- (c) was forbidden after World War II.
- (d) has been considered art since prehistoric times.
2. In Japan …
- (a) murderers were marked with the symbol for “dog”.
- (b) third-time offenders were marked with the symbol for “dog”.
- (c) no criminals were marked with the symbol for “dog”.
- (d) all offenders were marked with the symbol for “dog”.
ARE THESE STATEMENTS TRUE OR FALSE? JUSTIFY YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE PRECISE WORDS OR PHRASES FROM THE TEXT
3. According to some experts, the earliest tattoos may have been used to cure diseases.
4. In some cultures, prominent citizens had their bodies tattooed.
5. In the 18th century, Londoners wore visible tattoos.
6. In the mid-1900s tattooing was considered a harmful practice by some media.
II * USE OF ENGLISH
7. GIVE ONE OPPOSITE for “rise” (noun) AS IT IS USED IN THE TEXT (line 17)
8. GIVE A NOUN WITH THE SAME ROOT AS “laugh” (verb).
9. FIND IN THE TEXT ONE SYNONYM FOR “courage” (noun).
10. FILL IN THE GAP WITH THE CORRECT PREPOSITION:
- “She is always complaining about her school.”
11. FIND IN THE TEXT THE WORD WHICH HAS THE FOLLOWING DEFINITION: “A proof of something.”
12. FILL IN THE GAP WITH A CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB IN BRACKETS:
- “I’m tired because I have been working (work) since lunchtime.”
13. REWRITE THE SENTENCE WITHOUT CHANGING ITS MEANING. BEGIN AS INDICATED: “It is not necessary for them to attend the lecture.”
14. TURN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCE INTO THE ACTIVE VOICE:
“He was hit by a falling rock while skiing up in the mountains.”
15. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING CONDITIONAL SENTENCE:
- “If I had known the truth, I wouldn't have come.”
16. JOIN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES USING AN APPROPRIATE LINKER (DO NOT USE AND, BUT, OR BECAUSE). MAKE CHANGES IF NECESSARY:
17. GIVE A QUESTION FOR THE UNDERLINED WORDS:
- “Tattoos are created by inserting ink below the skin.”
III * PRODUCTION
18. WRITE A COMPOSITION OF APPROXIMATELY 120 WORDS ABOUT THE TOPIC PROPOSED. YOU MUST FOCUS STRICTLY ON IT:
- Tattoos, piercings, clothes, hairstyle, … do you like to follow trends? Explain.