People migrate for two reasons. Firstly, they may wish to get away from things they do not like. These are called “push factors” and include political fears, natural disasters and poor living conditions. Secondly, people are attracted to things that they do like. These are called “pull factors” and include hopes for better housing and education, chances of a job and good medical care. The United States has been a usual destination for immigrants from all over the world. It is a wealthy place with many opportunities, high standards of living, and an attractive way of life. All these things put together are sometimes called the “American Dream” –a vision of freedom, opportunity and good living which is available for all. For people living in poor conditions in Mexico migration to the United States has been an obvious choice and since 1940 many Mexicans have migrated northwards.
Most Mexicans settle in California or Texas. Some cross the border legally but perhaps as many as two million a year cross it without permission. Many Mexicans now live permanently in the USA but some stay there only on a temporary basis. They take seasonal jobs and when the work is finished they return to Mexico. Others cross the border every day to work and then return home at night. Most do unskilled and low paid work but even in those occupations they can earn more in a month than they could in a full year in Mexico. But not all American citizens are happy with Mexican migration. Especially if they are unemployed, like Brad Bradley. This is what he thinks: “I’m sick of these Mexicans coming into our country. They take our jobs, live in our houses and try to change our cities to suit their way of life. I don’t have a job and I really don’t think it is fair that a foreigner should get work before me”. But Eddie Ingle, a restaurant owner, thinks otherwise. For him, Mexicans are great: “I can’t afford to pay high salaries but the Mexicans seem to be happy on low pay so that’s good for my business. I think we should encourage Mexicans to live in America because they do work that we don’t like and they are good for our economy”.
Answer the following questions according to the information in the text “Migration”.
1. What three things does the United States seem to offer to immigrants?2. What kind of jobs do Mexican immigrants do in the USA?3. Why is Eddie Ingle in favour of Mexican immigrants?4. Which of the following paragraphs (a, b or c) summarises the text best?a) Many Mexicans migrate to the USA because of the poor living conditions in their country. Some Americans do not like the fact that Mexicans may be taking jobs away from USA citizens. Others are happy to employ Mexicans because they do not ask for high salaries.b) Immigrants are sometimes pushed out of their countries by their governments. Those who migrate to the South often face political problems and natural disasters while those who, like the Mexicans, migrate to the North get very high standards of living.c) Mexicans who live in California or Texas are not given permission to work in well-paid jobs in the USA. That is why they have to migrate northwards and try to find illegal jobs. Many are employed by restaurant owners, who like them a lot, while others are hated by American farmers.